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# CHAPTER

3
Resistive Network Analysis

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2

3-1

## Use of KCL in nodal analysis

Figure 3.3

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Network Analysis
Determine each of the unknown branch currents and node voltages R3 R1 b c a

+ VR1 +

+ VR3 -

Vs

VR2 R2

+
VR4

## Branch voltages Vs = Va - Vd = Vs VR1 =Va Vb VR2 = Vb Vd = Vb VR3 = Vb Vc VR4 = Vc Vd = Vc

Vb = VR2
Vc = VR4 Vd = 0 (ref)

## Node Voltage Method

-Based on defining the voltage at each node as independent variable -Select one node as reference (V=0) -Once each node voltage is defined, apply Ohms Law to determine current in each branch -Branch current is expressed in terms of one or more node voltages. -Apply KCL at each node

Va
a

Vb
b

I = Va Vb = VR
R R

+V-

## Illustration of nodal analysis

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4

3-3

Figure 3.6

Summary of nodal analysis method 1) Select a ref node Figure 3.6 2) Define remaining n-1 node voltage 3) Apply KCL at each node 4) Solve linear equations

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## Circuit for Example 3.6

Figure 3.11

Figure 3.11

3-5

Ex:

i1
R1 Use nodal analysis to find i Va R2 Vb
+

Vc

R1 = 2 , R2 = 2 R3 = 4 , R4 = 3

i2

i3

R3

i4

R4

I = 2A, V = 3V

Ex:

R2 R4

ia = 1 mA R3 ib = 2 mA R1 = 1 k

ia

R1

ib

R2 = 500
R3 = 2.2 k R4 = 4.7 k

Figure 3.12

Figure 3.12

3-6

## Use of KVL in mesh analysis

Figure 3.13
Figure 3.13

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A two-mesh circuit
Figure 3.14

3-8

Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15

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Figure 3.17

Figure 3.18

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## Circuit used to demonstrate mesh analysis with current sources

Figure 3.21

Figur e 3.21

3-11

Figure 3.25

Figure 3.25

3-12

Summary 1) Define each mesh current 2) In a circuit with n meshes and m current sources, n-m independent eqs will result 3) Apply KVL 4) Solve eqs Ex: R1
+

R3
+ +

## Find mesh eqs

V1

V2

V3
R4

V1 = 10 V, V2 = 9 V, V3 = 1 V R1 = 5 , R2 = 10 , R3 = 5 , R4 = 5

i1
Ex:

R2

i2

i3
R2

R3

i2

i1

R3 = 6 , R4 = 4

## The principle of superposition

Figure 3.27 In a linear cct containing N sources, each branch voltage and current is the sum of N voltages and currents, each of which may be computed by setting all but one source equal to zero and solving the cct containing that single source

Figure 3.27

= iB1 + iB2

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Figure 3.28

Figur e 3.28

3-14

## Ex: Use superposition principle R2

+

Is

R1

R3 V3

Find V3

Is = 12 A, Vs = 12 V
R1 = 1 , R2 = 0.3 , R3 = 0.23

Vs

Solution: a) Set Vs = 0, R1 R2
+

Is

R3

V3a

b)

Set Is = 0 R1
+

R2 Vs

R3

V3b

## Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuit

Thevenin Theorem When viewed from the load, any network composed of ideal voltage and current sources, and of linear resistors, may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal voltage source VT in series with an equivalent resistance RT Norton Theorem - When viewed from the load, any network composed of ideal voltage and current sources, and of linear resistors, may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal current source IT in parallel with an equivalent resistance RN

## Determination of Thevenin or Norton Eq Resistance

Remove the load Zero all independent voltage and current sources Compute total resistance between load terminals with the load removed

Figure 3.36

Figure 3.37

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## Computing Thevenin Voltage

Defined as the eq (Thevenin) source voltage is equal to the open cct voltage present at the load terminal (with the load removed) Method Remove the load Define open cct voltage Voc Apply analysis method to solve for Voc Thevenin voltage is VT = Voc

1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 3.43

Figure 3.43

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Figure 3.47

Figure 3.47

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Figure 3.54

Figure 3.54

3-19

Figure 3.67

Figur e 3.67

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Figure 3.69

Figure 3.70

3-21

Figure 3.73

Figure 3.74

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