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CHAPTER

3
Resistive Network Analysis

Branch current formulation in nodal analysis


Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2

3-1

Use of KCL in nodal analysis


Figure 3.3

3-2

Network Analysis
Determine each of the unknown branch currents and node voltages R3 R1 b c a

+ VR1 +

+ VR3 -

Vs

VR2 R2

+
VR4

Identify branch and node voltage Node Voltages Va = Vs

Branch voltages Vs = Va - Vd = Vs VR1 =Va Vb VR2 = Vb Vd = Vb VR3 = Vb Vc VR4 = Vc Vd = Vc

Vb = VR2
Vc = VR4 Vd = 0 (ref)

Node Voltage Method


-Based on defining the voltage at each node as independent variable -Select one node as reference (V=0) -Once each node voltage is defined, apply Ohms Law to determine current in each branch -Branch current is expressed in terms of one or more node voltages. -Apply KCL at each node

Va
a

Vb
b

I = Va Vb = VR
R R

+V-

Illustration of nodal analysis


Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4

3-3

Figure 3.6

Summary of nodal analysis method 1) Select a ref node Figure 3.6 2) Define remaining n-1 node voltage 3) Apply KCL at each node 4) Solve linear equations

3-4

Circuit for Example 3.6


Figure 3.11

Figure 3.11

3-5

Ex:

i1
R1 Use nodal analysis to find i Va R2 Vb
+

Vc

R1 = 2 , R2 = 2 R3 = 4 , R4 = 3

i2

i3

R3

i4

R4

I = 2A, V = 3V

Ex:

R2 R4

ia = 1 mA R3 ib = 2 mA R1 = 1 k

ia

R1

ib

R2 = 500
R3 = 2.2 k R4 = 4.7 k

Basic principle of mesh analysis


Figure 3.12

Figure 3.12

3-6

Use of KVL in mesh analysis


Figure 3.13
Figure 3.13

3-7

A two-mesh circuit
Figure 3.14

3-8

Assignment of currents and voltages around mesh 1


Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15

3-9

Figure 3.17

Figure 3.18

Figure 3.17, 3.18

3-10

Circuit used to demonstrate mesh analysis with current sources


Figure 3.21

Figur e 3.21

3-11

Figure 3.25

Figure 3.25

3-12

Summary 1) Define each mesh current 2) In a circuit with n meshes and m current sources, n-m independent eqs will result 3) Apply KVL 4) Solve eqs Ex: R1
+

R3
+ +

Find mesh eqs

V1

V2

V3
R4

V1 = 10 V, V2 = 9 V, V3 = 1 V R1 = 5 , R2 = 10 , R3 = 5 , R4 = 5

i1
Ex:

R2

i2

R4 R1 Find mesh current I = 0.5 A, V = 6 V, R1 = 3 , R2 = 8 ,

i3
R2

R3

i2

i1

R3 = 6 , R4 = 4

The principle of superposition


Figure 3.27 In a linear cct containing N sources, each branch voltage and current is the sum of N voltages and currents, each of which may be computed by setting all but one source equal to zero and solving the cct containing that single source

Figure 3.27

Net current = (VB1 + VB2)/R = VB1/R + VB2/R

= iB1 + iB2

3-13

Zeroing voltage and current sources


Figure 3.28

Figur e 3.28

3-14

Ex: Use superposition principle R2


+

Is

R1

R3 V3

Find V3

Is = 12 A, Vs = 12 V
R1 = 1 , R2 = 0.3 , R3 = 0.23

Vs

Solution: a) Set Vs = 0, R1 R2
+

Is

R3

V3a

b)

Set Is = 0 R1
+

R2 Vs

R3

V3b

Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuit


Thevenin Theorem When viewed from the load, any network composed of ideal voltage and current sources, and of linear resistors, may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal voltage source VT in series with an equivalent resistance RT Norton Theorem - When viewed from the load, any network composed of ideal voltage and current sources, and of linear resistors, may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal current source IT in parallel with an equivalent resistance RN

Illustration of Thvenin theorem

Figur e 3.34, 3.35

Illustration of Norton theorem

Determination of Thevenin or Norton Eq Resistance


Remove the load Zero all independent voltage and current sources Compute total resistance between load terminals with the load removed

Computation of Thvenin resistance


Figure 3.36

Equivalent resistance seen by the load


Figure 3.37

Figure 3.36, 3.37

3-16

Computing Thevenin Voltage


Defined as the eq (Thevenin) source voltage is equal to the open cct voltage present at the load terminal (with the load removed) Method Remove the load Define open cct voltage Voc Apply analysis method to solve for Voc Thevenin voltage is VT = Voc

1. 2. 3. 4.

Equivalence of open-circuit and Thvenin voltage


Figure 3.43

Figure 3.43

3-17

A circuit and its Thvenin equivalent


Figure 3.47

Figure 3.47

3-18

Computation of Norton current


Figure 3.54

Figure 3.54

3-19

Measurement of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current


Figure 3.67

Figur e 3.67

3-20

Power transfer between source and load


Figure 3.69

Graphical representation of maximum power transfer


Figure 3.70

3-21

The i-v characteristic of exponential resistor


Figure 3.73

Representation of nonlinear element in a linear circuit


Figure 3.74

Figure 3.73, 3.74

3-22

Load line
Figure 3.75

Figure 3.75, 3.76

Graphical solution of equations 3.44 and 3.45


Figure 3.76

3-23