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By S. VIJAYAKUMAR M. K. SANIL M. NISHA T. M.

SHABIN ALI

WASTE
An unusable / unwanted

WASTE MANAGEMENT
Collection source separation

substance or material.
Rejected as worthless.

storage
transportation transfer processing treatment disposal of waste

Eg) Rubbish, trash, garbage or junk

AIM OF WASTE MANAGEMENT


@ To extract maximum practical benefits. @ To generate minimum amount of waste. @ Reduce negative impacts - on environment & society.

TYPES OF WASTES
DEGRADABLE WASTES
From plant or animal sources Broken down by other living organisms. Eg) municipal waste green waste, food waste, paper waste and biodegradable plastics. Also include human waste, manure, sewage.

NON DEGRADABLE WASTES

Cannot be broken down by other living organisms. Not capable of degradation or decomposition. Eg) plastics, metal and glass. Also include dangerous chemicals, toxins as are plastic grocery bags.

SOURCES OF WASTES

*Domestic wastes
remnants

- Eg) paper, plastic, glass, ceramics, vegetable wastes - Eg) printer paper, meat

*Commercial wastes

*Ashes

- Eg) coal, wood and coke.

- Open burning of wastes also generates ashes

*Animal Wastes
- rejected feed

- Eg)dung of animals

*Biomedical Wastes

- Eg) expired drugs, plastic syringes, surgical dressings

*Construction Wastes

- Eg) metal rods, bricks, cement, concrete, roofing materials - digging activities Eg) telephone, electricity, drainage factory would dump textiles of various kinds the roadside

*Industrial Solid Wastes -Eg) garment

*Sewer - removed from sewerage - left on

*Hazardous wastes - potentially dangerous


- react explosively with air or water - Change in the genetic structure of individuals

*E

- Waste

- electronics disposed

-E.g.) Secondary computers, electronics, mobile phones, television sets & refrigerator

*Nuclear waste - containing radioactive material


- product of a nuclear fission

Effects of waste If not managed


Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate Rise in global temperatures Rise in sea levels

Methods of Waste Mgmt.


Disposal Methods
a) Land fills
Convenient Inexpensive Destruction of food sources Desalination

Recycling methods
a) Biological reprocessing b) Energy recovery i)Pyrolysis ii)Gasification
Key to providing a livable environment for the future

Incineration
Requires minimum land Can be operated in any weather

Expensive to build and operate Continuous maintenance

Expensive Some wastes cannot be recycled Technological push needed

Practical Issues
Lack of awareness

Unplanned growth and development of cities


Land availabilty Un sorted waste. mixture of bio-degradable and non

bio-degradable Some wastes cannot be recycled Unsightly - smell, waste, vermin requires proper planning, design, and operation

Bio-Methanation Process
Materials that are organic in nature, such as plant

material, food scraps convert starch or sugary agricultural feed stock into a methane rich gas mixture three stages, namely, hydrolysis, acid-genesis and methane formation Process is very slow Installing is expensive.

Suggestions

Improve product design to use less materials. use biodegradable materials maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets At Source Treatment, Separation of materials should be done at source Encourage eople to reuse materials rather than purchase new ones.

Case Study
Name of Project : CochinWaste 2 Energy Pvt Ltd

Type of Process : BESI W2E Gasification Technology


Capacity : 35 tons/day Land Area : 1 Acre Location : Willington Island, Cochin Type ofWaste : Industrial effluent Sludge, e-waste,Biomedical waste,food waste, Wood waste, Power Generation : 1 Mega Watt per hour. SolidWaste generated from Plant: Recovered sterilized metals for recycle. Vitrified glass. Inert Ash

Revenue Stream : Tipping fee. Sale of Power generated. Residue. Carbon Credits
Collection Mechanism :Through specially designed enclosed refuse trucks meeting international norms Waste Stream Analysis : School of Environmental Studies, CUSAT