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Meaning of Development
Development is defined generally in terms of technological or industrial development. It may also be defined in terms of economic growth. Many sociologists and social scientists have defined development and said that development is a social change Economic Change, Social Development" and so on

The concept of development is a value loaded notion , expressing Western preconceptions about basic values in social life. It presupposes and requires that the nonWestern adheres a to a similar culture as that of the advanced economies giving priority to economic growth and its derivatives. Development stands for a set of properties that refer to economic , political or social aspect of life.
World Bank, World Bank Development Report 1982, World Bank, Washington,DC,1982.

Importance of Development
Development is a major goal for Third World Nations. It is believed to be the key to solving social problems and necessary condition for not having to face even greater difficulties. Various methods have been tried in order to promote development , from central planning and coordination to the introduction of market capitalism. Usually development is interpreted as an economic target although one is reminded of the fact that development is more than GNP . Growth Of decisive importance for development in Third World countries is gross domestic investment. For example- a rapid increase in population may condition negative process of development, and a transformation of the economic active population from agriculture towards industry is a condition for development.

Aspects of Development
The concept of development as multidimensional , referring to: - Output and incomes - Conditions of production, - Level of living - Attitudes toward life and work, institutions and policies
Mydral.G. Asian Drama, Vols. I-III, Panthon Books, New York,1968.

Characteristics of Development
Development refers to a deeply-felt discontent and unease covers a variety of perceptions and realities ranging from pervasive poverty and its malignant consequences for human existence and dignity, on the one hand , to material affluence leading to loss of freedom and community, on the other. Development expresses And articulates the belief that present is malleable and the future determinable, that mankind is capable of escaping the pernicious effects of various patterns of mal development whose roots go back in the past, and that the foundation of a better future can be successfully laid in the present. Development points to certain referents and properties of the concept of development, which when translated into practice, would, it is believed, induce and sustain proper development. 6

Development Indicators
Life Expectancy IMR & MMR Per capita Income Energy consumption Literacy School enrollment ratio Drop outs rate Retention rate Telephone Television

Types of Development
Development Mal development Underdevelopment

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development has become a priority for businesses across the globe. To be a responsible part of Indias growth story, organizations are ensuring that economic goals necessarily include considerations for social well-being and environmental protection. This triple bottom line approach is driving strong and sustained partnerships among Businesses, Governments, and NGOs to improve the environment, strengthen economic foundations, and enhance the living conditions of people. Today, businesses will have to develop effective tools and strategies for sustainable development if they wish to stay relevant in a global market place and translate improved sustainability performance into enhanced business performance

Definition Of Sustainable Development

According to a definition offered by World Commission on Environment and Development Sustainable Development is development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. As such sustainable development is essentially a matter of achieving a sustainable lifestyle, based on meeting the basic needs of all people , an austerity and economy, and deriving satisfaction from existing socio- spiritual and natural processes of the Erath.

Sustainable development is global issue Poverty and environment concerns must be addressed together Significant improvements in the material standard of living of developing countries are a pre-condition to sustainable development Significant opportunities exit to improve the environmental quality and human development through scientific , engineering, technological development and institutional reforms.

Requirements of Sustainable Development

Access and Control Community Resource Management Adding Value to the Product Investment and Economic Stake holding


Sustainable development and its Implications

Sustainable development emphasizes not only the importance of resources in limiting economic growth, but also draws our attention to develop the means and methods by which human population can live in harmony with the environment . Harmony with nature that development cannot be sectoral. It has to be holistic. This approach has wide ramifications. Land use, animal husbandry and domestic sectors have to be considered as an integrated whole. They interact with each other and with the private , common and public resources from a mosaic and have to be tackled as a single unit. The holistic approach also implies that all the development actors such as government agencies , voluntary action groups and even the beneficiary local communities have to act together through appropriate institutional mechanisms. Sustainable development involves a series of compromises. We need to reconcile a conventional economic development plan which was based on upon a top down approach with a participatory mode which demand a bottom up organisation framework. We have also to reconcile between a market driven economy that is getting more and more globalised with that which aims at sustainable livelihood for the vulnerable sections of society. Sustainable development has a special and temporal dimension. Landscape (a set of interacting ecosystems) types such as a watershed 14 should be the unit of development, rather than administrative unit.

In sustainable development one also needs to reconcile between short-term strategies with a long term one. The short term strategy for five to ten t\years may be constrained because of ecological, social,economic considerations in view of social tensions. At the same time, one needs to keep in view the long term strategy extending over the next fifty years. While evaluating sustainable development reconciliations has to be made between a set of diverse factors that may be ecological, economic, or social. They touch upon health, empowerment, food security etc.


The assimilative capacity of environment as a waste recipient is a source of worry to sustainability of the industrial economy. The exploitation of resources does not pose as much threat to sustainability as does waste disposal . There are different components of sustainable development. In order to sustain development, the supply and quantity of major consumables and inputs in our daily lives and economic production such as air, water, energy, food, raw materials and the natural environment need to taken care of.

So far as the choice of the technologies for sustainable development in the developing world is concerned, care has to taken that appropriate development model can be accommodated in the relevant socio- economic environment area. It is also necessary to control water and air pollution. Water is important for life sustenance. It is needed for drinking, bathing and other household chores. It is also required for industrial and commercial operations. It is seen that in most of the metropolitan cities , waste water gets collected and find its way to rivers, lakes and agriculture fields which leads to water logging, contamination of ground water and other sources of fresh water. In some areas, over exploitation of ground water has led to lowering of the water table.

Due to increase in human population and personal vehicles, the air quality has been affected to a great extent. In industrial cities, the problem is much worse. The major causes of pollution are man-made. This is aggravated due to attitudinal change among the urban people towards materialism and consumerism. There is need for mobilization of public participation and environmental awareness for the mitigation of pollution. The voluntary organisation, youth groups, SHGs should come on one platform to make aware the people for sustainable development.


In India , the forest covers has been considerably reduced on account of felling of forest by the local inhabitant mainly by tribals. This is largely on account of the practice of head loading in which large number of tribal men and women are involved.


The challenges of sustainable development cannot be effectively met without sustainable consumerism. This has been emphasized in agenda 21 of the recommendation of Rio de Janerio Earth Summit in 2002. the time has arrived when limits to consumption have to be seriously considered. There must be a striking balance between consumption and wastage of resources. A long term strategy has to be evolved to provide equitable consumption pattern of basic needs of life such as water, clean air, flora alng with health and education.

Attributes of Sustainable Development

Peoples local control and governance Respect for all leaving creatures and processes Equitable access to and use of resources A non- violent perspective on dealing with conflicts, and A feminist appreciation of life and creation ( regeneration capacity)