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Riddhi Gala Sunil Kewalramani Vikram Shah Laxmikar Naidu Sanjeev Gawda Ajay Deshpande

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Asset Liability Management in Banks

Components of a Bank Balance sheet

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Capital Reserve & Surplus Deposits Borrowings Other Liabilities

1. Cash & Balances with RBI 2. Bal. With Banks & Money at Call and Short Notices 3. Investments 4. Advances 5. Fixed Assets 6. Other Assets

Contingent Liabilities

Components of Liabilities
1. Capital:
Capital represents owners contribution/stake in the bank.

It serves as a cushion for depositors and creditors.

It is considered to be a long term sources for the bank.

Components of Liabilities
2. Reserves & Surplus
Components under this head includes:
I. II. III. IV. V. Statutory Reserves Capital Reserves Investment Fluctuation Reserve Revenue and Other Reserves Balance in Profit and Loss Account

Components of Liabilities
3. Deposits
This is the main source of banks funds. The deposits are classified as deposits payable on demand and time. They are reflected in balance sheet as under: I. Demand Deposits II. Savings Bank Deposits III. Term Deposits

Components of Liabilities
4. Borrowings
(Borrowings include Refinance / Borrowings from RBI, Inter-bank & other institutions) I. Borrowings in India i) Reserve Bank of India ii) Other Banks iii) Other Institutions & Agencies II. Borrowings outside India

Components of Liabilities
5. Other Liabilities & Provisions
It is grouped as under:

I. II. III. IV. V.

Bills Payable Inter Office Adjustments (Net) Interest Accrued Unsecured Redeemable Bonds Others(including provisions)

Components of Assets
1. Cash & Bank Balances with RBI
I. Cash in hand (including foreign currency notes) II. Balances with Reserve Bank of India

In Current Accounts In Other Accounts

Components of Assets
2. Balances With Banks And Money At Call & Short
I. In India i) Balances with Banks a) In Current Accounts b) In Other Deposit Accounts ii) Money at Call and Short Notice a) With Banks b) With Other Institutions II. Outside India a) In Current Accounts b) In Other Deposit Accounts c) Money at Call & Short Notice

Components of Assets
3. Investments
A major asset item in the banks balance sheet. Reflected under 6 buckets as under: I. Investments in India in : i) Government Securities ii) Other approved Securities iii) Shares iv) Debentures and Bonds v) Subsidiaries and Sponsored Institutions vi) Others (UTI Shares , Commercial Papers, COD & Mutual Fund Units etc.) II. Investments outside India in Subsidiaries and/or Associates abroad

Components of Assets
4. Advances
The most important assets for a bank. A. i) Bills Purchased and Discounted ii) Cash Credits, Overdrafts & Loans repayable on demand iii) Term Loans B. Particulars of Advances : i) Secured by tangible assets (including advances against Book Debts) ii) Covered by Bank/ Government Guarantees iii) Unsecured

Components of Assets
5. Fixed Asset
I. II. Premises Other Fixed Assets (Including furniture and fixtures)

6. Other Assets
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Interest accrued Tax paid in advance/tax deducted at source (Net of Provisions) Stationery and Stamps Non-banking assets acquired in satisfaction of claims Deferred Tax Asset (Net) Others

Contingent Liability
Banks obligations under LCs, Guarantees, Acceptances on behalf of constituents and Bills accepted by the bank are reflected under this heads.

Assets Liability Management

It is a dynamic process of Planning, Organizing & Controlling of Assets & Liabilities- their volumes, mixes, maturities, yields and costs in order to maintain liquidity and NII.


Management Information System Information availability, accuracy, adequacy and expediency Structure and responsibilities ALCO Committee Level of top management involvement Risk parameters Risk identification Risk measurement Risk management Risk policies and tolerance levels

ALM organisation

ALM process

Senior management including CEO should be responsible for ensuring adherence to the limits

Decision making unit responsible for

- Strategic Management of interest & liquidity rates - Balance sheet planning - Product pricing for both deposits and advances - Monitoring the results & progress - Funding mix

Scope of ALM
Liquidity risk management Management of market risks (including Interest Rate Risk)

Funding and capital planning

Profit planning and growth projection Trading risk management

Significance of ALM
Product Innovations & Complexities Regulatory Environment Management Recognition

Purpose & Objective of ALM

An effective Asset Liability Management Technique aims to manage the volume, mix, maturity, rate sensitivity, quality and liquidity of assets and liabilities as a whole so as to attain a predetermined acceptable risk/reward ration. It is aimed to stabilize short-term profits, long-term earnings and long-term substance of the bank. The parameters for stabilizing ALM system are: 1. 2. Net Interest Income (NII) Net Interest Margin (NIM)

Liquidity Management
Banks liquidity management is the process of generating funds to meet contractual or relationship obligations at reasonable prices at all times. New loan demands, existing commitments, and deposit withdrawals are the basic contractual or relationship obligations that a bank must meet.

Funding Avenues
To satisfy funding needs, a bank must perform one or a combination of the following:

a. b. c. d. e.

Dispose off liquid assets Increase short term borrowings Decrease holding of less liquid assets Increase liability of a term nature Increase Capital funds

Categories of liquidity risk

Funding Risk - Need to replace net outflows due to unanticipated withdrawals/non-renewal Time Risk - Need to compensate for non-receipt of expected inflows of funds Call Risk - Crystallization of contingent liability

Statement Of Structural Liquidity

Places all cash inflows and outflows in the maturity ladder as per residual maturity Maturing Liability: cash outflow Maturing Assets : Cash Inflow Classified in to 8 time buckets Mismatches in the first two buckets not to exceed 20% of outflows Shows the structure as of a particular date

Statement of Structural Liquidity

As per RBI guidelines issued for ALM implementation for Banks in 1999, there are 8 time buckets T-1 to T-8 classified respectively as follows


1 to 14 days

ii. 15 to 28 days iii. 29 days and up to 3 months iv. Over 3 months and up to 6 months v. Over 6 months and up to 1 year

vi. Over 1 year and up to 3 years

vii. Over 3 years and up to 5 years viii. Over 5 years

An Example of Structural Liquidity Statement

15-28 1-14Days Days 30 Days- 3 Mths - 6 Mths - 1Year - 3 3 Years - Over 5 3 Month 6 Mths 1Year Years 5 Years Years Total

300 200 350 400 50 50 700 650 200 150 50 50 200 150 Loans BPLR Linked 100 150 Others 50 50 Total Inflow 600 550 Gap -100 -100 Cumulative Gap -100 -200 Gap % to Total Outflow -14.29 -15.38

Capital Liab-fixed Int Liab-floating Int Others Total outflow Investments Loans-fixed Int Loans - floating

200 600 600 300 200 350 450 500 450 450 0 550 1050 1100 750 650 250 250 300 100 350 0 100 150 50 100 200 150 150 150 50 200 500 350 500 100 0 0 0 0 0 650 1000 950 800 600 100 -50 -150 50 -50 -100 -150 -300 -250 -300
18.18 -4.76 -13.64 6.67 -7.69

200 200 450 200 1050 900 100 50 100 200 1350 300 0

200 2600 3400 300 6500 2500 600 1100 2000 300 6500 0 0

To meet the mismatch in any maturity bucket, the bank has to look into taking deposit and invest it suitably so as to mature in time bucket with negative mismatch. The bank can raise fresh deposits of Rs 300 crore over 5 years maturities and invest it in securities of 1-29 days of Rs 200 crores and rest matching with other out flows.

Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk refers to volatility in Net Interest Income (NII) or variations in Net Interest Margin(NIM). Therefore, an effective risk management process that maintains interest rate risk within prudent levels is essential to safety and soundness of the bank.

Managing Interest Rate Risk

Balance Sheet Adjustments
Changing portfolio as interest rate changes

OFF Balance sheet adjustments

- Using off balance sheet derivatives like interest rate swaps and futures

Measuring Interest Rate Sensitivity

Gap Analysis Duration Gap Analysis

Gap is defined as the difference between the rate sensitive assets and rate sensitive liabilities maturing within a specific time period. Gap = RSA RSL
Gap Positive Positive Negative Negative Zero Zero RSA > RSL RSA > RSL RSA < RSL RSA < RSL RSA = RSL RSA = RSL Change in Interest Rate Increase Decrease Increase Decrease Increase Decrease Change in NII Increase Decrease Decrease Increase No Change No Change

Let us consider an XYZ Bank for which the maturity pattern of Assets and Liabilities as on a particular date, say 31.03.2004 is given

Problems with Gap Analysis

Time Horizon
Repricing of the assets / liabilities

Correlation with market

Assuming correlation with the market as 1

Focus On NII
Focusing more on NII rather than Shareholders wealth

Duration Gap Analysis

Duration Weighted average time to receive all cash flows from a financial instrument (expressed in years)
Duration Gap Difference between duration of a banks assets and liabilities It is a measure of interest rate sensitivity that explains how changes in interest rate affect the market value of banks assets and liabilities and in turn net worth.

Duration gap, Interest rates and changes in net worth

Duration Gap Positive Change in Interest Rate Increase Change in Net Worth Decrease

Negative Negative Zero

Increase Decrease Increase

Increase Decrease No Change



No Change

Duration of a 3-year loan with 12% as rate of simple interest and having market value is Rs.700 is calculated as follows

Duration=Total Cumulative Returns/Market Value (MV) of loan=1883.04/700 = 2.69 yrs

Duration Gap (DG) for the following assets and liabilities of an organization, if the value unit is Rupees (INR) and duration is in years

Here Total Assets (TA) = 100 + 700 + 200 = 1000 and Total Liabilities (TL) = 620 + 300 = 920 (Without Equity) DA = Weighted average of Duration of all Assets = [ MV(Ai) x DAi ] / TA for i = 1 to m; where Ai is the i th asset out of m assets = [700*2.69+200*4.99] /1000 = 2.88 yrs DL = Weighted average of Duration of Liabilities = [ MV(Lj) x DLj ] / TL for j = 1 to n; where Lj is the j th liability out of n liabilities = [620*1+300*2.81] /920 = 1.59 yrs Duration GAP (DG) = DA- [TL/TA] DL = 2.88 - 1.59 [920/1000] = 1.42 years

Problems with Duration Gap Analysis

Isolation of the market value of equity to interest rate changes will be effective only if interest rate for all maturity securities shift up or down by exactly the same amount.

Duration Drift