Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

What is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?


compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emotions, and analyze or advocate ideas Most began as oral tradition. [W]e gain much from it.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

What is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?


Literature helps us grow, both personally and intellectually. It opens doors for us. It stretches our understanding, and enlarges our power of sympathy. It helps us see beauty in the world around us.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

What is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?


It links us with the cultural, philosophical, and religious world of which we are a part.It enables us to see worthiness in the aims of all people.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

What is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?

It makes us human.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Types of Literature: The Genres


Prose fiction Poetry Drama Non-fiction prose

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Fiction
Short stories Novels The essence of fiction is narration, the relating or recounting of a sequence of events or actions.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Poetry
If prose is expansive, poetry tends toward brevity.Poetrys power lies not only in its words and thoughts, but also in its music, using rhyme and variety of rhythms to intensify its emotional impact.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Drama
Drama is literature designed for stage or film.The essence of drama is the development of character and situation through speech and action. Early drama was poetry.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Types of Literature: The Genres


Prose fiction
myths parables romances novels short stories

Poetry
sonnet and villanelle ballad and epic blank verse couplets elegies epigrams hymns limericks songs or lyrics
10

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

Types of Literature: The Genres


Non-fiction prose
news reports feature articles essays editorials textbooks diaries journals historical and biographical works

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

11

Guidelines for Reading


Observations for basic understanding
Explain words, situations, and concepts. Determine what is happening in the work setting, characters, point of view

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

12

Guidelines for Reading


Notes on first impressions
Make a record of your reactions and responses. Describe interesting characterizations, events, techniques, and ideas.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

13

Guidelines for Reading


Development of ideas and enlargement of responses
Trace developing patterns.conflicts. Write expanded notes about characters, situations, and actions. Always write down questions that come up during your reading.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

14

Raise and Answer Your Own Questions


What is happening as the work unfolds? How does an action at the works beginning bring about the works later actions and speeches? Who are the main characters? What seems unusual or different about what they do in the work?
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 15

Raise and Answer Your Own Questions


What conclusions can you draw about the works actions, scenes, and situations? Explain these conclusions. What are the characters and speakers like? What do they do and say about themselves, their goals, the people around them, their families, their friends,, their work, and the general circumstances of their lives?
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 16

Raise and Answer Your Own Questions


What kinds of words do the characters use: formal or informal words, slang or profanity?

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

17

Writing Essays on Literary Topics


Writing does not come easily for anyone. A major purpose of your being in collegeis to develop your capacity to think and to express thoughts clearly and fully.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

18

The Writing Process


Planning
brainstorming, clustering, freewriting, outlining

Drafting Revising and editing


Use the process carefully. Use your colored pencils.
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 19

The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought


Do not rehash the plot. [Y]our goal should always be to explain the work you are analyzing.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

20

I disagree.
I totally disagree with Robertss assertion about assuming the reader knows the work. Instead, include the plot summary in the opening paragraph that includes the whole story, not just a teaser.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

21

Argument When Writing Essays about Literature


proveor demonstratea point or idea about it. use the material from the story to prove your assertion (specifics)

The Need to Present an

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

22

Approaches
Determine the Works Historical Period and Background Describe the Economic and Social Conditions Depicted in the Work Explain the Works Major Ideas Learn about and Describe the Works Artistic Qualities
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 23

Verb tense
[W]hen writing about literature, you should use the present tense of verbs. Mathilde and her husband work and economize [not worked and economized] for ten years to pay off the 18,000-franc debt they undertake [not undertook] to pay for the lost necklace.
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 24

Introduction
Title Author Plot summary transition Thesis: topic and assertion

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

25

Authors Name
In the first sentence, use the authors whole name. Eudora Weltys A Worn Path is the story of an old African-American woman by the name of Phoenix Jackson, who walks the long miles into town to get much-needed medicine for her sick grandchild that swallowed lye years ago.
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 26

Authors Name
In later paragraphs, use the authors last name only. Weltys Phoenix Jackson is a model for love, dedication, bravery, and determination.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

27

Body
The specifics with references to the text. Incorporate quotes smoothly into your text. Phoenixs eyes [are] blue with age (139), meaning that she can hardly see due to cataracts.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

28

Conclusion
Restate what you have proven. Broaden out.
If there were more people in the world with the drive and determination of Phoenix, the world would be a better place. Young people need role models like her.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

29

Guidelines
Never just retell the story or summarize the work. Bring in story materials only when you can use them as support for your central idea or argument. Throughout your essay, keep reminding the reader of your central idea.
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 30

Guidelines
Within each paragraph, make sure that you stress your topic idea. Develop your subject. Make it bigger than it was when you began. Always make your statements exact, comprehensive, and forceful.

Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing

31

Guidelines [R]emember, never just retell the story or summarize the work.
Not just plot!
Chapter 1 Prepared by Sara Cushing 32