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Surveillance Detection

Surveillance

Detection

Surveillance Detection

Definition

General Surveillance Awareness Surveillance Detection Routes (SDR)

Route Analysis

Definition

Surveillance Detection - The process of determining your

surveillance status

Incorporated into your lifestyle and habits Simple and routine

Nothing that causes a potential surveillance team to question any action or lack of action from start to finish

Counter-Surveillance

The process of using other people to help determine your surveillance status

Normally relies on Observation Posts (OP) OPs should be higher than your location Observers relay a signal of some sort to you

General Surveillance Awareness

Awareness of Surroundings in Public

Note who and what is in your area

Vary your approaches to destinations

Watch for repeated sightings of people that seem out of place

General Surveillance Awareness

Note suspicious activities:

Vehicles pass the same area repeatedly or at slower than a normal rate

Vehicles with multiple passengers

Dirty vehicles with clean license plates (or vice versa) - indicates a recent change

People lingering in your area or passing by frequently

Look at windows in nearby buildings for anything out of the ordinary

Look for people or vehicles making evasive movements

General Surveillance Awareness

Maintain a low profile!

Beware of complacency!

Default state -

Conduct all operational activities with the assumption that you are under hostile surveillance

Abort operational activities if you detect surveillance

Surveillance Detection Routes (SDR)

Definition

A planned route taken by an operator for the purpose of detecting surveillance in support of an operational objective. It's designed to be natural and non-alerting.

• AKA “Surveillance Detection Run”

Objective

Criteria for an SDR

Surveillance Detection Routes (SDR) • Definition – A planned route taken by an operator for the

Objective

Establish repeated correlation of surveillance team and target activities over “TDD”

TIME

Has a reasonable amount of time elapsed since the first sighting?

DISTANCE

Have you traveled far enough to indicate that a second sighting is more than a coincidence?

DIRECTION

Have you made several changes in direction since the previous sighting?

Objective

Adopt behaviors that require observable responses from surveillants.

Rule of thumb - three times = correlation

"Once is happenstance, twice is coincidence, three times is surveillance.“

Look for non-changeable features!

– Surveillants may use “disguises” to avoid detection.

• Don’t alert surveillants!

Detecting surveillance can be easy, but avoiding alerting surveillants makes it more challenging.

Criteria for an SDR

Must cover sufficient TDD to “break the box”

Uses plausible pretexts for any activities designed to detect surveillance status

Does not include any elements that are unnatural or alerting to surveillants keep their perception of you neutral

Uses strategies to force the surveillance team to reveal itself ... Establish correlation between your actions and those of your surveillance

Ensure the correlation is not a coincidence using the TDD factors

Abort Routes

Used to abort an SDR prior to any operational activity

Legitimizes the route from start to finish

Not an obvious change or deviation

Anatomy of an SDR

Surveillance Cover Stop Detection Surveillance Cover Stop Point Detection Point Start Point Observation Post Cover Stop
Surveillance
Cover Stop
Detection
Surveillance
Cover Stop
Point
Detection
Point
Start Point
Observation
Post
Cover Stop
Surveillance
Detection
Abort Route
Observation
Point
Post
Operational
Activity
End Point
End Point

Strategies to force the surveillance

team to reveal itself ...

Surveillance Detection Points (SDP)

Choke Points

Cover Stop

Channel

Multiple Turns

Natural Reverses

Stair-Stepping Varied Traffic Density

Changing Modes of Transportation "Sifting"

Surveillance Detection Points (SDP)

"Intrusion Points" - locations where surveillance is expected to intrude

Example

Entering a building with multiple exits the team will probably decide to follow you if they don’t have

enough people to cover all exits

Choke Points

Locations on a route that can't be avoided due to environmental factors

Examples

Entrance to a building or compound Revolving doors leading into office buildings or shopping centers

Cover Stop

Location that provides a logical reason for the route and aids in timing

Example

Stopping at a specialty store to make a purchase or inquire about an item

Channel

Linear area where surveillance must travel in order to follow a target

Example

Crossing a bridge

Multiple Turns

Several logical changes in

direction of travel

Example

Turning left at an intersection and then

merging onto a highway

Multiple Turns • Several logical changes in direction of travel • Example – Turning left at

Natural Reverses

LOGICAL changes to

travel in the opposite

direction

An unnatural reverse is a very alerting behavior

Examples

Driving to a parking lot in a major city and then backtracking on foot to reach a logical destination.

A rotary or highway on- ramp/exit ramp that gives you a view in the opposite direction

CLEAR VIEW OF SURVEILLANTS
CLEAR VIEW OF
SURVEILLANTS

Stair-Stepping

Movement to intended

destination in a series of "dog- legs" (linear movement to various intrusion points or

cover stops)

Example

Zigzag travel to multiple intrusion points and cover stops to "run errands" en route to a final destination

Stair-Stepping • Movement to intended destination in a series of "dog- legs" (linear movement to various

Varied Traffic Density

Repeated movement into and out of areas with many or few people (or vehicles)

Varied Traffic Density • Repeated movement into and out of areas with many or few people
I NEED A LOGICAL REASON TO BE IN THIS DESERT.
I NEED A LOGICAL REASON
TO BE IN THIS DESERT.

Example

Entering and exiting a large crowd to purchase a ticket to a public event

I NEED A LOGICAL REASON TO BE IN THIS CROWD.
I NEED A LOGICAL
REASON TO BE IN THIS
CROWD.

Changing Modes of

Transportation

LOGICAL switching between travel on foot,

public transportation,

and use of a vehicle

Example

Walking to a cab stand and then taking a cab to the nearest

subway station

EVERYTHING YOU DO DURING AN SDR MUST APPEAR TO HAVE A LOGICAL REASON. REMEMBER THAT YOUR
EVERYTHING YOU DO
DURING AN SDR
MUST APPEAR TO
HAVE A LOGICAL
REASON.
REMEMBER THAT YOUR
SURVEILLANTS MIGHT
NOT BE TOO BRIGHT
OR CREATIVE.
THE REASON SHOULD
BE PRETTY OBVIOUS!

"Sifting"

Eliminates irrelevant suspicions through the

application of TDD factors

until you achieve certainty

Example

Continue an SDR to include at least three significantly different locations at three significantly different points in time

"Sifting" • Eliminates irrelevant suspicions through the application of TDD factors until you achieve certainty •

Route Analysis

Areas of Predictable Travel (APT)

An area on a route that a target must travel through in order to

reach a known

destination.

This is the most likely location for a physical attack against the target.

GRENADE!!
GRENADE!!

TWO OPERATORS ENTER AN APT

Route Analysis • Areas of Predictable Travel (APT) – An area on a route that a

TWO PURPLE HEARTS (POSTHUMOUSLY AWARDED)

"Hollywood Tradecraft"

Driving backwards

Getting on and then quickly

getting off of a subway train

Driving down dead-end

streets

Illogical U-Turns

Entering a crowded movie theater and then immediately walking out the exit

"Hollywood Tradecraft" • Driving backwards • Getting on and then quickly getting off of a subway
Surveillant: Why is he making a U-turn?
Surveillant:
Why is he
making a
U-turn?

Surveillant:

Why is he driving on a

golf course?

"Hollywood Tradecraft" • Driving backwards • Getting on and then quickly getting off of a subway

Answer: because he’s an idiot.

Remember

The surveillance team’s perception is

their reality and they

will react accordingly.

Your reality isn’t relevant they only know what they perceive based on your actions

On the other hand, Hollywood Tradecraft makes sense when your objective is survival!
On the other hand,
Hollywood Tradecraft
makes sense when
your objective is
survival!

Losing Surveillance

With the preceding warnings about Hollywood Tradecraft in mind, how could you lose surveillance in the unlikely event that you need to do so?

 

Jump into a taxi when no other cabs are immediately available.

Take a bus just before it leaves a stop.

Enter a subway station at a time when a large crowd will be exiting,

 

cross through the crowd, and then quickly leave from the other side of

the station.

 

Pass through a revolving door that will slow pursuit and then immediately duck out of sight.

Etc.

Remember that these and other similar actions will serve as red flags to surveillants. They only make sense when immediate survival or another unusual circumstance outweighs consideration of long term operational viability.

About Mobile Phones

Mobile phones can act as carriers for any radiated signal

This means your mobile phone conversations can be intercepted by mistake

Mobile phones can also serve as beacons that allow surveillants (physical/technical) to track you

Turn off your mobile phone AND disconnect the battery to mitigate this risk

About Mobile Phones • Mobile phones can act as carriers for any radiated signal – This

ACTIVITY

Design and conduct an SDR

Surveillance Cover Stop Detection Surveillance Cover Stop Point Detection Point Start Point Observation Post Cover Stop
Surveillance
Cover Stop
Detection
Surveillance
Cover Stop
Point
Detection
Point
Start Point
Observation
Post
Cover Stop
Surveillance
Detection
Abort Route
Observation
Point
Post
Operational
Activity
End Point
End Point
Questions?

Questions?