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Suprarenal Glands

Divided into two parts; each with separate functions Suprarenal Cortex Suprarenal Medulla

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex


Glucocorticoids (including cortisone and cortisol)
Produced in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex

Promote normal cell metabolism


Help resist long-term stressors

Released in response to increased blood levels of ACTH


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 9.29a

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex


Sex hormones
Produced in the inner layer of the adrenal cortex Androgens (male) and some estrogen (female)

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 9.29b

Functions of glucocorticoids
Effect of cortisol on protein metabolism Reduction of protein storage in all cells except those of liver protein catabolism & protein synthesis

Cortisol increases liver & plasma proteins


Mobilizes aminoacids from non hepatic cells, thus increase blood amino acid level. amino acid transport to liver cells & transport of amino acids into other cells

REGULATION OF CORTISOL SECRETION


STRESS + CRH HYPOTHALAMUS DIURNAL RHYTHM

ANTERIOR PITUITARY INCREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE BLOOD AA BLOOD FATTY ACIDS

ACTH

CORTISOL

ADRENAL CORTEX

TARGET ORGANS

HYPER AND HYPOFUNCTION ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES


Too much

Too little

I. CUSHINGS DISEASE (TOO MUCH CORTISOL!)


secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex 4X more frequent in females Usually occurs at 35-50 years of age

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Cushings


protein catabolism
muscle wasting loss of collagen support
thin, fragile skin, bruises easily

poor wound healing

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Cushings

s in CHO metabolism
hyperglycemia Can get diabetes-insulin cant keep up Polyuria

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Cushings

s in fat metabolism
truncal obesity buffalo hump moon face weight but strength

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS


s in hematology WBCs lymphocytes eosinophils

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS


MENTAL CHANGES

Mood swings Euphoria Depression Anxiety

Mild to severe depression Psychosis Poor concentraion and memory Sleep disorders

ADDISONS DISEASE hypofunction of adrenal cortex


What hormones will you have too little of??? glucocorticoids or _______ mineralocorticoids or _______ androgens or ____________

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Addisons Disease


fatigue, weight loss, anorexia
Why? think of cortisol fx Changes in skin pigment small black freckles cortisol -- ACTH-- MSH Muscular weakness cortisol helps muscles maintain contraction and avoid fatigue

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Addisons


androgens
hair loss, sexual fx

mental disturbances
anxiety, irritability, etc.

salt craving-why?