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Strength of Brand Association

Strength function of amount or quantity of processing and nature or quality of processing the information. 1. Personal relevance of the information 2. Consistency over a time

Brand Attributes-descriptive features that characterize a product or service Brand benefits personal values and meaning that consumers attach to the product or service attributes

Favorability of Brand Associations

Desirable to consumers

Successfully delivered by the product

Conveyed by the support marketing program-brandhighly convenient, reliable, effective, efficient, colorful. and the length of time

Desirability- three factors

1. Relevant 2. Distinctive 3. Believable

Firm- able to deliver on the desired association. Cost or investment necessary

Deliverability-three factors
1. Actual or potential ability of the product to perform 2. Current or future prospects of communicating that performance 3. Sustainability of the actual and communicated performance over time.

Uniqueness of Brand Associations

Sustainable competitive advantage-unique selling proposition Communicated explicitly- direct comparisons Highlighted implicitly

Product related or product non-related attributes/benefits Product category attitudes Unique meaningful -points of differencereason why Points of parity- no reason why not

Brand Positioning
Define competitive frame of reference
Target market Nature of competition

Define desired brand knowledge structures

necessary competitive

strong, favorable, and unique brand associations

Issues in Implementing Brand Positioning

Establishing Category Membership Identifying & Choosing POPs & PODs Communicating & Establishing POPs & PODs Sustaining & Evolving PODs & POPs

Establishing Category Membership

Product descriptor Exemplar comparisons Communicating category membership


POD (Point of Difference)

Strong, favorable, unique brand associations May be any kind of attribute or benefit

Two types of PODs

Attribute Based
Functional, performance related differences

Image Based
Affective, experiential, brand image related differences

POP (Point of Parity)

Associations that are shared with other brands

Two types
Category: attributes that are required to include your product as a member of that category Competitive: POP that negate your competitors PODs

POPs can be good enough, but PODs should be superior


Identifying & Choosing POPs & PODs

Desirability criteria (consumer perspective)
Personally relevant Distinctive & superior Believable & credible

Deliverability criteria (firm perspective)

Feasible Profitable Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack

How do I decide on my PODs and POPs? POPs

Analysis of category
What attributes do all of my competitors have? I probably need to have those, or my competitors automatically have a POD POPs get you included in category

PODs are more difficult

Dont use PODs that are product centric (dominate competition) but customer centric (uniquely address need of customer)


Major Challenges in Positioning

Find compelling & impactful pointsof-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR, 97)
How do people become aware of their need for your product and service? How do consumers find your offering? How do consumers make their final selection? How do consumers order and purchase your product or service? What happens when your product or service is delivered? How is your product installed? 15 How is your product or service paid for?

Major Challenges in Positioning

Find compelling & impactful pointsof-difference (cont.)
How is your product stored? How is your product moved around? What is the consumer really using your product for? What do consumers need help with when they use your product? What about returns or exchanges? How is your product repaired or serviced? What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used?

Create POPs and PODs in the face of attribute & benefit trade-offs
Price & quality Convenience & quality Taste & low calories Efficacy & mildness Power & safety Ubiquity & prestige Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity Strength & refinement

Communicating & Establishing POPs & PODs

Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs

Establish separate marketing programs Leverage secondary association (e.g., cobrand) Re-define the relationship from negative to positive


Sustaining & Evolving POPs & PODs

Core Brand Values & Core Brand Proposition


Brand Mantras
A brand mantra is an articulation of the heart and soul of the brand.
Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values.

Authentic Athletic Performance

Fun Family Entertainment


Principles a la Keller: What makes a good Principle?

Three components
Emotional component (Comfortable) Descriptive modifier (Casual) Brand function (clothing)

Other Examples
Nike: Authentic, Athletic Performance Fun Family Entertainment

Emotional Descriptive Brand

Modifier Nike Authentic

Disney Fun






The Brand Function describes the service, type or benefit. The Descriptive Modifier is the answer to not just any kind of function,

Emotional Modifier describes the qualitative nature of how the

brand provides the benefit.

Nike has described their mantra of Authentic Athletic Performance as the intellectual guard rails to keep the brand on track.

Reasons for a Brand Mantra

It forces to articulate what the brand is all about if we cant do it, then how can we expect our customers to? It allows a foundation from which to have structured dialogue with the customers in ongoing research It guides the conversation, such as the Discussion Guide for focus groups what is it that we should be talking about? .

It facilitates NPD by defining the boundaries for the brand. Ensures continuity for new staff. Guides the communication Adds depth to the brand Potential stakeholders that there is more to the brand than what they see

The future?: Internal branding

Living the brand It is key to align promises with performance through:
The products (quality) The company (corporate branding) The channels (branding on POS) The employees (internal branding)

All have to live up the brands promise


Core Brand Values

Set of abstract concepts or phrases that characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand. Relate to points-of-parity and points-ofdifference
Mental Map Core Brand Values Brand Mantra

Brand Mental Map Build-up

Your Brand





This mental map shows the range of associations for Nike. Some associations are product specific while others are not.
Brands typically have many associations, but only three to five are the primary drivers of brand equity.


Core associations for Nike include: innovative technology, high quality/stylish products, joy and celebration of sports, maximum performance, self empowerment and inspiring, locally and regionally involved, and globally responsible.


When compared to Reebok, comfort and stylishness are points of parity while technology and empowerment are points of difference. Compared to Adidas, performance and quality are points of parity while technology and empowerment are points of difference.