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Defence system

Non specific Divided into 1st line eg Skin mucous membrane 2nd line are Phagocyte Carry out Phagocytosis through produce lymphocyte antibody immunity gives Divided into specific is 3rd line

Divided into active passive Divided into

immunisation Divided into natural artificial

artificial

natural

VARIOUS TYPES OF IMMUNITY


ACTIVE IMMUNITY : when an individuals own

immune system produces its own antibodies to defend against specific antigens
Natural Active Immunity : after recovered from certain

disease (examples : mumps, measles & chicken pox)

Natural Active Immunity


When a person is infected by pathogens, the immune

response will occur. The antibodies are produced in response to the antigens. As person recovers from a diseases, the person is immune to the pathogen because lymphocytes remain in the body. Graph NAI is permanent immunity and obtained after a person recovers from an infection.

INVASION OF unwelcome PATHOGEN CARRIED ANTIGENS

stimulate

LYMPHOCYTES (WBC)

produces
ANTIBODIES

Artificial Active Immunity : can be

established upon immunisation or vaccination. (mumps, rubella, measles & poliomyelitis)

Artificial Active Immunity


Injection of vaccine (weakened pathogen) stimulates

production of antibodies. A vaccine will stimulate the body to release antibodies that capable of binding to the antigens. Immunisation is process of inducing immnuity by administering a vaccine. AAI is abtained through immunisation @ vaccination.

Bring in OF PATHOGEN (weakened) CARRIED ANTIGENS

stimulate

LYMPHOCYTES (WBC)

produces
ANTIBODIES

VARIOUS TYPES of IMMUNITY

PASSIVE IMMUNITY : when an individual is given the

antibodies required to defend against the pathogen


Natural Passive Immunity : when antibodies produced by

the mother are passed across the placenta to the foetus during development or in early infancy through breast milk (breast feeding). Colostrum (1st formed milk) rich in antibodies

Natural Passive Immunity


NPI is temporary as the antibodies are finally broken

down in the spleen and liver. GRAPH NPI is obtained from mother either placenta @ the breast milk (colostrum)

Artificial Passive Immunity : ready-made antibody

or serum is injected into the individual. Prepared from cows or horses. (rabies, hepatitis, tetanus & snakebites)

Artificial Passive Immunity


Injection of serum (contain antibodies ) are collected

from blood of laboratory animals (cow, horse,rabbit) The antibodies will temporary protect the travellers if they are exposed to hepatitis virus during the trip. The immunity usually disappears after several weeks @ months. API is obtained through the injection of a serum which contains antibodies @ antiserum.

Introduce the pathogen into the animals body

Animals body will stimulate the WBC

To procude antibodies
Serum will extract out and just leave the blood plasma The blood will proceed several test to separate into the serum (1/3) and the blood plasma

Aniamls blood were extract in laboratory

ASPECT TYPE OF INJECTION

ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY VACCINES (WEAKENED PATHOGENS) BEFORE BEEN INFECTED

ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY SERUM (READY-MADE ANTIBODIES) AFTER BEEN INFECTED @ HIGH RISK

TIME OF INJECTION TIME TAKEN TO ACHIEVE IMMUNITY DURATION OF IMMUNITY NECESSITY OF BOOSTER

BODY TAKE A TIME TO IMMEDIATE SYNTHESISE ANTIBODY RESPONSES LONGER LASTING NEED 2ND INJECTION TO INDUCES A SLOW @ LOW LEVEL OF ANTIBODIES DELAY IMMUNITY SHORT ONLY FIRST INJECTION ENOUGH TO IMMUNE THE BODY AGAINST INFECTION. IMMEDIATE IMMUNITY

IMPRESSION