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Quality management




3. 4.


Meaning of Quality Best practices in manufacturing Industries Lean Manufacturing 5S Six Sigma Kaizen

Meaning Of Quality
1. 2.

Quality can be defined as the degree of excellence of any thing. According to American society for Quality:-totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs Ex:-

Meaning of Quality

Producers Perspective

Consumers Perspective

Quality of Conformance Production Conformance to specifications Cost

Quality of Design Quality characteristics Price Marketing

Fitness for Consumer Use

What is Quality Management?

According to Feigenbaum Quality Management is an effective system for
integrating the quality development, qualitymaintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction.

Quality Management

Basic Practises:
exploitation of mineral resources (coal, oil, gas)

high technology equipment such as computers

consumer-oriented mass production such as food

processing highly specialized capital goods production such as turbines process-oriented production such as chemicals discrete consumables such as cars.

Role Of Quality Management

Quality An Integral Part Of Manufacturing And Service Industry

Develop and document good habits and


Design Quality assurance (inspecting for

acceptability) into the system so as to put it close to the possible source of any problems

Check Quality Early and Often

Maintain Quality Performance records

Identify & Correct problem processes Develop (and nurture) highly reliable product sources and suppliers As quality improves reduce quality inspections!!!

Quality Tools for effectiveness of Industry

Check sheets: used to gather information on problem under investigation where and how much Pareto Diagram the so called 80-20 chart used to identify the vital few that cause the most problems helps to focus the improvement studies Histogram shows stratification in production

Scatter Diagram used to identify relationships between variables

Flow Charts describes, visually, the process

under study. Allows teams to focus on problem areas and structural issues Cause-and-effect diagrams also called fishbone diagrams relates relationships between various factors influencing the problem under study. Control Chart charts of SPC to that assess status of the problem under study.


Lean Manufacturing
"Lean," is a production practice that considers the expenditure of

resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Lean manufacturing is derived from Toyota Production System (TPS) Hence known as Toyotism. Termed as Lean in 1990. It has been applied in many sectors such as Engineering, Call center, manufacturing, services etc.

Types Of Lean
There are two types of Lean: Just in Time(JIT) or Flow Aut0mation" (smart automation)

Lean Manufacturing 7 Wastes


Defects and Rejects

Inventory Overproduction

Over processing
Motion Transportation

Keys to Successful Implementation of 5S

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7. 8.

Get everyone Involved Get Company Authorization Final Responsibilities Rests with President Make yourself Understood and Aware of. Do It All The Way. The President should Inspect The GEMBA personally Do nt Stop Halfway while implementing 5S 5S is Halfway towards other Improvement

What is Six Sigma?

A new way of doing business
Wise application of statistical tools within a

structured methodology Repeated application of strategy to individual projects Projects selected that will have a substantial impact on the bottom line

What is Six Sigma?


A methodology to improve a business process by constantly

reviewing, updating and re-tuning the existing process. Six Sigma improves the process performance, decreases variation and maintains consistent quality of the process output. This leads to defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, product quality and finally customer satisfaction. Six Sigma Strives for perfection. It allows for only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction. Six Sigma relies heavily on statistical techniques to reduce defects and measure quality.

What Is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma

A scientific and practical method to achieve improvements in a company

Scientific: Structured approach. Assuming quantitative data. Show me the money

Show me the data

Practical: Emphasis on financial result. Start with the voice of the customer.

Evolution of Six Sigma

Japan has been credited with the evolvement of Quality Systems like TQM, Kanban, Kaizen, etc. Pioneered in the U.S. by Bill Smith at Motorola in 1986; Early adopters include Bank of America, Caterpillar, Honeywell International (previously known as Allied Signal), Raytheon, Merrill Lynch and General Electric. Six Sigma was originally centered around manufacturing improvements. The reason for this was knowledge of the statistical tools in the manufacturing functions and the ease with which we can quantify the benefits.

Six Sigma levels and Process


The Greek letter for Sigma, , represents one standard

deviation from the normal or average. The higher the sigma level the better the quality level. Levels of Sigma Performance

What Is Six Sigma?

1. As a Metric

The term Sigma is often used as a scale for levels of "goodness" or quality. Equates to 3.4 defects per one million opportunities . Six Sigma started as a defect reduction effort in manufacturing and was then applied to other business processes for the same purpose.

What Is Six Sigma?

2. As a Methodology

A business improvement methodology that

focuses an organization on:

Understanding and managing customer requirements Aligning key business processes to achieve those requirements Utilizing rigorous data analysis to minimize variation in those processes Driving rapid and sustainable improvement to business processes

What Is Six Sigma?

The DMAIC model


Motorola developed a five phase approach to the Six Sigma Process

called DMAIC which is a continuous process as the diagram shows until the highest level in the Six Sigma is achieved, i.e., 3.4 defects per million.

What Is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma levels and Process

The Greek letter for Sigma, , represents one standard deviation from the normal or average. The higher the sigma level the better the quality level. Levels of Sigma Performance

Sigma Yield Defects per Million Opportunities

690,000 308,000 66,800 6,210 230

1 2 3 4 5

31.0% 69.2% 93.3% 99.4% 99.97%

What Is Six Sigma?


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Six Sigma companies

Companies who have successfully adopted Six

Sigma strategies include:

General Electric
In 1995 GE mandated each employee to work towards achieving 6 sigma The average process at GE was 3 sigma in 1995 In 1997 the average reached 3.5 sigma GEs goal was to reach 6 sigma by 2001 Investments in 6 sigma training and projects reached 45M US$ in 1998, profits increased by 1.2B US$

the most important initiative GE has ever undertaken. Jack Welch

Chief Executive Officer General Electric

At Motorola we use statistical methods daily throughout all of our disciplines to synthesize an abundance of data to derive concrete actions. How has the use of statistical methods within Motorola Six Sigma initiative, across disciplines, contributed to our growth? Over the past decade we have reduced in-process defects by over 300 fold, which has resulted in cumulative manufacturing cost savings of over 11 billion Robert W. Galvin dollars*.

Chairman of the Executive Committee Motorola, Inc.

Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Charity Trust Gangaram Talekar, a tiffin carrier contractor . The New York Times reported in 2007 that the 125 year old dabbawala industry continues to grow at a rate of 510% per year. In its July 11, 2008 issue, The Economist news magazine reported that dabbawallas are a model of Six Sigma management, holding a delivery accuracy rate of 99.9999%.

Barriers to implementation
Barrier #1: Engineers and managers are not interested in mathematical statistics
Barrier #2: Statisticians have problems communicating with managers and engineers Barrier #3: Non-statisticians experience statistical anxiety which has to be minimized before learning can take place Barrier # 4: Statistical methods need to be matched to management style and organizational culture

Six Sigma through the correct application of

statistical tools can reap a company enormous rewards that will have a positive effect for years or Six Sigma can be a dismal failure if not used correctly ISRU, CAMT and Sauer Danfoss will ensure the former occurs

Six Sigma: Reasons for Success

The Success at Motorola, GE and AlliedSignal has

been attributed to:

Strong leadership (Jack Welch, Larry Bossidy and Bob Galvin personally involved) Initial focus on operations Aggressive project selection (potential savings in cost of poor quality > $50,000/year) Training the right people

KAIZEN- Background
Masaaki Imai is

known as the developer of Kaizen.

('kai') KAI means

'change' or 'the action to correct'.

('zen') ZEN means


What is KAIZAN?
So basically kaizen is small incremental changes made for

improving productivity and minimizing waste.

Kaizen has three main principles:

Consider the process and the results! The need to look at the entire process of the job at hand and to evaluate the job as to the best way to get the job done. Kaizen must be approached in such a way that no one is blamed and that the best process is put into place.

5S is a method for organizing a workplace, especially a shared workplace (like a shop floor or an office space), and keeping it organized.
To take the concept of Kaizen performance to its ultimate level of simplicity, it offered the following "5S" steps

Simplifying Sweeping Standardizing

keeping only essential item eliminates extra motion. keep the workplace clean standardized work practices


maintaining and reviewing standards

Widely applicable Can be used in both manufacturing and non-

manufacturing environments

Highly effective & results oriented. Kaizen events will generate

quick results, Measurable results, Establish the baseline, and measure the change!!!
A Learning Experience Every member of a Kaizen Team will

walk away from the event learning something new! !

Team based & cross functional Team members can be from various functions of the business. Top management participation is encouraged.


A.) Select an Event B.) Plan an Event C.) Implement an Event

D.) Follow-up to an Event

Kaizen Reduces Waste-

like inventory waste, time waste, workers motion Kaizen Improves space utilization, product quality Results in higher employee moral and job satisfaction, and lower turn-over.

Toyota is well-known as one of the leaders in using Kaizen. In 1999 at one U.S. plant, 7,000 Toyota employees submitted over 75,000 suggestions, of which 99% were implemented.


Resistance to change Lack of proper

procedure to implement
Too much suggestion

may lead to confusion and time wastage