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PRESENTATION

P RESENTATION O N TQM, 5S, K AIZEN , JIT, K ANBAN , P OKA Y

ON

TQM, 5S, KAIZEN, JIT, KANBAN, POKA YOKE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AMRUTVAHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, SANGAMNER

2011-2012

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

  • ‘Total’ : Made up of whole

  • ‘Quality’ : Degree of excellence

  • ‘Management’ : Act of handling, controlling, directing, staffing an organisation.

  • “Maximum user satisfaction at minimum cost”

  • “TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organisation.”

  • Quality is determined by the combined efforts of various departments such as design, process planning, engineering, purchase, production and inspection.

T OTAL Q UALITY M ANAGEMENT (TQM)  ‘Total’ : Made up of whole  ‘Quality’
  • The golden rule of TQM “Do unto others as you would have do unto you”.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

T OTAL Q UALITY M ANAGEMENT (TQM)

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

ELEMENTS OR PILLARS OF TQM

1)

Top Management’s

commitment to quality

2)

Customer focus of the organisation

3)

Employee improvement and empowerment

4)

Training of employees

5)

Process focus and improvement

6)

Continuous improvement

7)

Measurement of performance

8)

Benchmarking

9)

Teams

10)

Inventory Management

11) Communication Quality Costs

12)

T OTAL Q UALITY M ANAGEMENT (TQM) ELEMENTS OR PILLARS OF TQM 1) Top Management’s commitment

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

T OTAL Q UALITY M ANAGEMENT (TQM)

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

 

QUALITY ELEMENTS

Prior To TQM

With TQM

1)

Definition

Product oriented

Customer focused

     

2)

Priorities

Second to service and cost

First to service and cost

     

3)

Decisions

Short term

Long term

     

4)

Emphasis

Detection

Prevention

     

5)

Errors

Operation

System

     

6)

Responsibility

Quality control

Every one

     

7)

Problem Solving

Managers

Teams

     

8)

Procurement based on

Price

Life cycle cost, partnership

8) Procurement based on Price Life cycle cost, partnership
     

9)

Manager’s role

Plan, assign, control and enforce

Delegate, coach, facilitate and mentor

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

T OTAL Q UALITY M ANAGEMENT (TQM)

5-S

“5 S is a technique that results in a well-organized workplace complete with visual controls and order.”

  • Developer- Iwao Kobayashi

  • Sort (SEIRI) : Clear unnecessary items from work area.

  • Straighten/Set in order (SEITON) : Organize work area in an orderly manner.

  • Shine (SEISO) : Clean work area.

  • Standardize (SEIKESTU) : Maintain work area cleanliness.

  • Sustain (SHITSUKE) : Maintain self-discipline in work area.

5-S “5 S is a technique that results in a well -organized workplace complete with visual
5-S
5-S
  • There’s no second chance to make the first impression

5-S

5-S T OYOTA ASSEMBLING PLANT

TOYOTA ASSEMBLING PLANT

OBJECTIVE

5-S

  • Increase the Storing places.

  • Create and preserve standards.

  • Reduce unproductive times.

  • Readjust the location.

  • Reduce the document search time with 20%.

O BJECTIVE 5-S  Increase the Storing places.  Create and preserve standards.  Reduce unproductive

5-S

SORT (SEIRI)

SWEEP (SEISO)

5-S SWEEP (SEISO)

5-S

5-S STRAIGHTEN (SEITON) : T OYOTA ENGINE ASSEMBLY LINE

STRAIGHTEN (SEITON): TOYOTA ENGINE ASSEMBLY LINE

5-S

SCHEDULE (SEIKESTU)

5-S SCHEDULE ( SEIKESTU )

SUSTAIN (SHITSUKE)

5-S

5-S

5-S

BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION

  • It reduced the idle time & fatigue to workers.

  • Reduction of wastage of material

  • Improvement in quality & Productivity

  • Punctuality, commitment & discipline

  • Improved effectiveness of employees

  • Reduction in Non- Value-Added Activities

  • Following cost gets decreased-

    • Record keeping & administrative cost

    • Deterioration cost

    • Handling cost

5-S B ENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION  It reduced the idle time & fatigue to workers. 
  • „KAI „: Change

KAIZEN

; „ZEN‟ : Better

  • „Changes for better‟ or Continous Improvement‟

  • Masaaki Imai developer of Kaizen

  • “Kaizen is a Japanese word for the phylosophy, that defines management’s role in continously encouraging & implementing small improvement involving everyone.”

  • Kaizen makes the process more efficient , effective and adaptable.

  • Kaizen focuses on simplication of complex process by breaking them down into their sub-process and then improving them

 „KAI „: Change KAIZEN ; „ZEN‟ : Better  „Changes for better‟ or „ Continous

KAIZEN

KAIZEN M ANUFACTURING O BJECTIVES

MANUFACTURING OBJECTIVES

KAIZEN

Key Elements of Kaizen

foundation of Kaizen

  • Quality

  • Team Work

  • Effort

  • Personal Discipline

  • Involvement of all employees

  • Improved Morale

  • Willingness to Change

  • Quality Circles

  • Communication

  • Suggestions For Improvement

KAIZEN Key Elements of Kaizen foundation of Kaizen  Quality  Team Work  Effort 

KAIZEN

KAIZEN J OB F UNCTIONS AS PERCIEVED BY JAPANESE MANAGERS

JOB FUNCTIONS AS PERCIEVED BY JAPANESE MANAGERS

KAIZEN

KAIZEN IMPROVEMENT FOCUSES ON

  • Value added & non-value added work activities.

  • Muda: wastes

    • 1. Over Production

    • 2. Delay

    • 3. Transportation

    • 4. Inventory

    • 5. Defective Parts

    • 6. Wasted Motion

    • 7. Processing

  • Principles of Material Handling

  • Documentation of standard operating procedures

  • 5-S frame work

  • Better Communication through visual displays- posters, bulletins.

  • Just In Time Principles

  • Poka Yoke : to prevent or detect errors

  • Team Effort on Problem solving, conflict reduction & communication.

  • KAIZEN K AIZEN I MPROVEMENT F OCUSES O N  Value added & non-value added work

    KAIZEN

    KAIZEN : SMALL SUGGESTIONS

    Work Improvement Environment Improvement Process Improvement Machine capability Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Service Improvement

    KAIZEN K AIZEN : SMALL SUGGESTIONS • Work Improvement • Environment Improvement • Process Improvement •
    KAIZEN K AIZEN : SMALL SUGGESTIONS • Work Improvement • Environment Improvement • Process Improvement •
    • An example of a Kaizen type improvement would be

    the change in color of a welding booth from black to
    white to improve operators visibility

    KAIZEN

    KAIZEN

    JUST IN TIME (JIT)

    • “JIT is manufacturing philosophy that produces necessary units, with the required quality, in the necessary quantities, at the last safe moment.”

    • Eliminates waste of time, labour and storage space.

    • It’s a “pull” system of production: actual orders provide a signal when to manufacture.

    • Non-value-adding activities are removed for the purposes of :

      • Reducing Cost

      • Improving Quality

      • Improving Performance

      • Improving Delivery Adding Flexibility

      • Increase innovativeness

    J UST I N T IME (JIT)  “JIT is manufacturing philosophy that produces necessary units,

    JUST IN TIME (JIT)

    J UST I N T IME (JIT)

    JUST IN TIME (JIT)

    Advantages of JIT

    • Reduction in storage space

    • Less working capital

    • Less likelihood of stock perishing

    • Avoids the build up of unsold finished product

    Limitations of JIT

    • Little room for mistakes

    • Production is very reliant on suppliers

    • No spared finished product to meet the expected demand

    J UST I N T IME (JIT) Advantages of JIT  Reduction in storage space 

    KANBAN

    „KAN‟ : Card ;

    „BAN‟ : Signal

    Japanese term for "visual record” Coined by : Taiichi Ohno

    The Kanban card is “A message that signals depletion of product , parts or inventory that when received will

    trigger replenishment of that product, part or inventory.”

    KANBAN  „KAN‟ : Card ; „BAN‟ : Signal  Japanese term for "visual record” 

    Bernstein identifies as “a highly efficient and effective factory production system”.

    No. of kanbans =

    KANBAN  „KAN‟ : Card ; „BAN‟ : Signal  Japanese term for "visual record” 
    KANBAN  „KAN‟ : Card ; „BAN‟ : Signal  Japanese term for "visual record” 
    KANBAN  „KAN‟ : Card ; „BAN‟ : Signal  Japanese term for "visual record” 

    KANBAN

    scanning bar codes and transmitting electronic orders.
    scanning bar codes and transmitting
    electronic orders.

    POURS is an innovative Web-based solution that streamlines the process, training and support associated with inventory management.

    KANBAN scanning bar codes and transmitting electronic orders. POURS is an innovative Web-based solution that streamlines

    POKA- YOKE

    • „POKA‟ – „mistake

    ;

    YOKERU – „Proofing

    • Developer: Shigeo Shingo (1960)- The industrial engineers at Toyota.

    • “Techniques that help operators avoid mistakes in their work caused by choosing the wrong part, leaving out a part, installing a part backwards, etc”

    • It provides instant feedback and prevention of quality problems

    • It is a tool that is

      • Mistake-proofing systems

      • Does not rely on operators catching mistakes

      • Inexpensive ‘Point of Origin inspection’

      • Quick feedback 100% of the time

  • This tool can be applied to any process, be it in manufacturing or the service industry.

  • P OKA - Y OKE  „POKA‟ – „ mistake ‟ ; YOKERU – „ Proofing

    POKA- YOKE

    Causes Of Defects

    Steps in applying Poka- Yoke

    • 1. Poor procedures or standards.

    • 2. Machines.

    • 3. Non-conforming material.

    • 4. Worn tooling.

    • 5. Human Mistakes.

    Except for human mistakes these conditions can be predicted and corrective action can be implemented to eliminate the cause of defects.

    • 1. Identify the operation or process - based on a Pareto Analysis.

    • 2. Analyze the 5-whys and understand the ways a process can fail.

    • 3. Decide the right Poka-yoke approach, such as using a,

    Shut out Type: Preventing an error being made, or an

    AttentionType: Highlighting that an error has been made.

    P OKA - Y OKE Causes Of Defects Steps in applying Poka- Yoke 1. Poor procedures

    POKA- YOKE

    ERROR TYPES

    i.

    Processing Error: Process operation missed or not performed per the SOP.

    ii.

    Setup Error: Using the wrong tooling or setting machine adjustments incorrectly.

    iii.

    Missing Part: Not all parts included in the assembly, welding, or other processes.

    iv.

    Improper part/item: Wrong part used in the process.

    v.

    Operations Error: Carrying out an operation incorrectly; having the incorrect version of the specification.

    vi.

    Measurement Error: Errors in machine adjustment, test measurement or dimensions of a part coming in from

    Measurement Error: Errors in machine adjustment, test measurement or dimensions of a part coming in from a supplier.

    POKA- YOKE

    3.5 inch diskettes

    cannot be inserted unless diskette is oriented correctly.

    EXAMPLES OF POKA- YOKE

    P OKA - Y OKE 3.5 inch diskettes cannot be inserted unless diskette is oriented correctly.

    Circuit breakers prevent electrical overloads and the fires that result. When the load becomes too great, the circuit is broken

    The sink is fitted with light sensors. These sensors ensure that the water is turned off in the sink.

    P OKA - Y OKE 3.5 inch diskettes cannot be inserted unless diskette is oriented correctly.

    THANK YOU…

    THANK YOU…