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The air flow is laminar: Air inside the container behaves as an ideal gas. Temprature is constant . This gives realtionship between the rate of change in the number of air molecules and the net flux of air in to the container.

Assuming furthur that number of molecules that leave outside the air is the same as the number of those entered the lung . Follwing realtion ship

FLEXIBLE LUNG

The relationship bewtween the pressure applied and the volume in the model. During uninterrupted mechanical ventillation respiration gas is moved in and out of the system. The lobe mechanics deals with pressure acting on lobe and the contamitant changes in pulmonary gas volume produced . This equation shows that force has to overcome three opposite forces related to spring or elasticity damping factor and inertia. p=pa-p pleural.

FLEXIBLE LUNG

This model explains how changes in the pleural pressure to change resulting in air flow in and out of the lung (pleural pressure changes due to movement of the respiratory muscles. The rate of changes of pa are given by

Assuming temprature is constant through out process while volume pressure and number of paricle changes. Differentiate

GAS MODELLING

In the gas model of the lung , flow between the compartment depend on the total pressure and the partial pressure of gases in the compartment. The transport of gas between lung section includes two effects : airflow and diffusion. When the pressure differernce exist through out the lung air flow is normally the most significant

Diffusion might be important when bulk flow is absent ,as in the case of no breathing (apnea). These effects will superimpose . In the next two section we consider two effects seperately.

Molecular level

To keep track of several gas types ,we will use vector variable in which each coordinate refer to specific gas . The first coordinate represent carbondioxide and second oxygen. Two necessary vector variable are the vector x,which expresses the amount of each revelant gas , and the fraction vector f, which expresses the fraction of the total amount matter in moles (n)that each gas form. The relation between the two vector is given by x=fn. We will first examine how the composition in the gases in the compartment is effected when this compartment is effected to another compartment with different composition of gases.

MOLECULAR LEVEL

A flow leaving a compartment will not change the mix of a gas in the compartment, as the flow has the same mix and therefore in this case. An inflow will result in an increase in the total number of molecules. Laminar airflow between compartments, determined by pressure diffrence (pj-p) and air flow resistance.

MOLECULAR LEVEL

Gases in our model assumed to obey ideal gas law. Assuming that the change in volume and pressure doesnt introduce change in temprature.we can express the number of molecules as Inserting V=CP+VO

MOLECULAR LEVEL

combinning (1) and (2),we obtain an eq. describing the change in the mixture when gas flow in to the compartment.

DIFFUSION

We will in this section estimate the extend to which diffusion contribute to the change in gas content of the compartment. We first The diffusive flux expresses the net number of molecules of a gas passing through a unit area in a unit time.The flux is given by ficks law flux is propotional to concentration gradient of the gas. The diffusion coefficient are specific to each gas.hence net diffusion of gases between two compartment isnt necessarily zero. The pressure difference give rise to a laminar flow,however diffusion coefficient of all atmospheric gases is approximately 10e-5m^2/s. The question is whether part of the oxygen in anatomical dead space is utilized , or only the supply in the alveoli is used. We module the conducting zone in the pulmonary tree as a central compartment which is connnected to alveoli. Average distance between compartment is assumed to be 0.1m^2.

Compartment equation

Neglecting diffusion we can summmarize the compartmental equation.The central compartment has connection to the respiratory mask reservior and to each alveolar compartments. Hence considering the contribution of the flow to and from these compartment, the mass balance for the central compartment yields

RESULT 1

RESULT 2

RESULT 3

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