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By Nikhil vaishnav

Education aims the behavior modification of learners. Behavior modification is achieved through a series of activities. Curriculum is concerned with guiding the teacher and student in the educative process. curriculum came to signify a group of subjects or courses of study arranged in a particular sequence for instructional purpose in the schools.

Curriculum is a Latin word currere, means running,

race course or run away, which takes to reach goal.

Curriculum is a runway for attaining the goals of

A group of subject or course of study arranged in a

particular sequence, for instruction purpose in school and colleges.

Ronald c. doll(1996): curriculum as a formal and informal content and process by which learner gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills. Stenhouse(1975): A attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice.

Cunningham : curriculum is in the hands of the

artist(teacher) to mould his material(students) according to his ideals (aims and objective) in his studio(school). Bevis(1982): curriculum is the manifestation of many composite parts and factors which together enables the achievements of nursing educational goals that have been fully identified, selected and articulated.

Traditional concept of curriculum represented the mastery

over subjects, certain type of knowledge and skills,according to strict syllabus planned by administrative system of the school, as the main objective of educational prog. Passing the exam was the main goal. Newer concept of curriculum, education is a dynamic process, by which the learner is guided and helped to live in the present world making necessary adaptations, solving problems of life and being creative in planning and building ones own future.

The developmental of curriculum depends largely on the

three fields 1)Philosophy :- is a power full determinant factor of aims(why) of education, but also equally a strong deciding factor of content and methods(what and how) of education. - It aims at the all round development of the individual. - It is based on the philosophy of the nation. - It helps in development of proper philosophy of life . - It indicate the desired ideals of life in the youngsters.

2) Sociological determinant
schools are the social institutions specially setup for preservation and transmission of culture by society through the curriculum. To realize the social aims of education. Makes education as an effective media of social control Social changes reflects the social needs of the community. Transmits the ideals and values that the society upholds and considers to be inherrited by the new generation. Enables the youngsters to participate efficiently in social life.

3) Psychological determinants
- Knowledge of the nature of the learner and learning

process and the conditions facilitating optimum learning .


Directive stage :-

At this initial stage the beliefs, knowledge and concepts that form the basis of curriculum are identified from the literature and by exploration of the common beliefs in the society. The characteristics of the student and behaviors expected by the end of the course . 2) Formative stage :At this stage all design of curriculum takes place. Objectives for the courses , basing on philosophy are developed, for specific levels within the course.

3) Functional stage:At this stage curriculum assume more practical form. Different types of teaching methods and learning experiences are decided upon. The evaluation techniques and types of evaluation methods depending on objectives formulated for the courses. There are three types of evaluation: - Evaluation for continued learning - Evaluation for grading - Evaluation for curriculum revision

4) evaluative stage:-

This evaluation is done when the full curriculum is implemented. Here evaluation is the summative type. It includes: - Input evaluation - Throughout evaluation - Out put evaluation

Based on Tyler and other authors observation there are

four elements or stages in the development of curriculum. The steps are:

Formulation of educational objectives

Selections of appropriate learning experiences

Effective organization of selected learning material

Evaluation of the extent to which goals have been achieved

- The first step in curriculum development is the

formulation of educational goals. - The objectives prepared must be screened through the stated philosophy of the school which the faculty has developed and the objectives must be consistent with the stated philosophy. - Philosophy of school: - Philosophy is a written statement of the beliefs and values which the school has agreed upon as a group in relation to the programme, its goals and values.

Selection of learning experiences, is what will be the

content of curriculum. Learning experience is something in which the student actively participates and which results in a change of behaviour.

Tyler identified five general principles of selection of

learning experiences:1)For a given objective to be attained, the student should have a right type of experience to practice the kind of behaviors to attain particular objective . 2) The learning experiences must be such that the students obtain satisfaction from carrying on the kind of behavior implied by the objectives. 3)The reactions desired by the experience are within range of possibility for the students involved.

4)There are many particular experiences that can be used to attain the same educational objective. 5)The same learning experience will usually bring out several outcomes. Every experience is likely to bring out more than one learning objective.

After the content and learning experiences have been

selected carefully in relation to desired objectives, they must be organized so that the learner receive the maximum benefits of a well planned curriculum.
Some of the organizing principles:
a) Proceed from simple to complex b) Proceed from concrete to abstract experiences

Proceed from what is close at hand to what is farther away. d) Proceed from normal to abnormal

Tyler defines: evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the curriculum and instruction and the degree to which the changes in behavior implied by the objectives are actually taking place. The evaluation concept has two aspects: 1st it implies that evaluation must appraise the behavior of students since it is the changes in behavior which is sought in education. 2nd implies that evaluation must involve more than a single appraisal at any one time to see whether changes have taken place.

The objective of evaluation must be stated clearly before

evaluation is made. Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation techniques because each provides unique but limited evidence on some aspects of pupil behavior. Proper use of evaluation technique require an awareness of their limitations as well as their strength. Evaluation is a mean to an end and not an end itself. Evaluation procedure must contribute to improved decision of instruction, guidance and administrative nurture.

Aggarwal suggests the following principles for

developing a fruitful curriculum: 1)The conservative principle 2)The forward looking principle 3)The creative principle 4)The principle of totality 5)The activity principle 6)Child centered 7)Principle of variety and flexibility 8)Principle of character building


3) 4)

6) 7)

Philosophy of nursing education Educational psychology Society Student (learner) Knowledge explosion and scintific advancement Technological advancements in patient care resources

The product model or behavioral objectives model The emphasis in this model is on the achievement of objectives by the students. It is an output model. He stressed the importance of stating the objectives in terms of student behavior ,which are observable and measurable. The behavior model provides guidance to the drawing up of objectives for curriculum.

He identifies four fundamental questions to be answered in the process of developing a curriculum: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain, i.e., objectives. 2. How can learning experiences be selected that are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives. 3. How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction 4. How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated

Acceptance of this model has led to the generic model of curriculum building consisting four stages or steps in developing curriculum: - Statement of objectives - Selection of learning experiences - Organization of those experiences - evaluation

According to stenhouse,the purpose of education was

to make student outcome unpredictable,but to provide a basis for speculation and conjecture about a discipline.
The greatest weakness of this process model was its

dependence on the quality of teacher. The teacher has to be committed and willing to be a learner to improve self performance and judgement.

Curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues

is utilized in this model by Denis Lawton(1983) This approach do not include detailed subject matter, instead , focuses upon controversial issue and political matters which stimulate discussion and enquiry by students because there is no right answer to the issues and they need to be debated.

Beattie(1987) suggest that there are four fundamental

approaches: 1. The curriculum as a map of key subjects 2. The curriculum as a schedule of basic skills 3. The curriculum as a portfolio of meaningful personal experiences 4. The curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues


3) 4)


Traditional or subject matter curriculum The activity curriculum The experience curriculum The undifferentiated curriculum Basic education curriculum Life centered curriculum

The legitimate curriculum

The illegitimate curriculum

The hidden curriculum The null curriculum

the conceptual framework is a structure in which a

complex of ideas are united so as to provide a large general idea. In curriculum construction this structure is intended to guide the selection of content to be presented over a period of time , and to give meaning to the learning experiences chosen to correlate with theory.