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# Inductive vs Deductive Approach

## Two basic categories of human reasoning

Deduction: reasoning from general premises, which are known or presumed to be known, to more specific, certain conclusions. Induction: reasoning from specific cases to more general, but uncertain, conclusions. Both deductive and inductive arguments occur frequently and naturallyboth forms of reasoning can be equally compelling and persuasive, and neither form is preferred over the other (Hollihan & Baske, 1994).

## Deduction Vs. Induction

Deduction: Induction
commonly known as informal logic, or everyday argument involves drawing uncertain inferences, based on probabalistic reasoning. the conclusions reached are probable, reasonable, possible, believable.

commonly associated with formal logic. involves reasoning from known premises, or premises presumed to be true, to a certain conclusion. the conclusions reached are certain, predictable, inescapable.

## Sample Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Example of Deduction major premise: All tortoises are vegetarians minor premise: Bessie is a tortoise conclusion: Therefore, Bessie is a vegetarian Example of Induction
Boss to employee: Biff has a tattoo of an anchor on his arm. He probably served in the Navy.

## sample Venn diagram of a deductive argument

vegetarian animals
All tortoises fall in the circle of animals that are vegetarians

tortoises
Thus, Bessie must be a vegetarian

Bessie

## Other types of deductive arguments

Suppose every place in the world that people live is represented by the blue space inside the rectangle. Suppose the long pink oval represents all the wooden houses in the world. And, suppose the green circle represents Canada. The most logical conclusion one can draw from the figure is:
A. all wooden houses are found in Canada B. Everyone lives in a wooden house C. Some Canadians live in wooden houses D. No one lives in Canada

## Deduction Versus Induction ---continued

Deductive reasoning is either valid or invalid. Inductive reasoning enjoys a wide range of probability; it can be possible, reasonable, credible, etc. the inferences drawn may be placed on a continuum ranging from sound at one end to fallacious at the other.

If the reasoning employed in an argument is valid and the arguments premises are true, then the argument is said to be sound. valid reasoning + true premises = sound fallacious argument

sound

Deductive Reasoning
Law of Detachment The law of detachment (also known as affirming the antecedent) is the first form of deductive reasoning. PQ (conditional statement) P (hypothesis stated) Q (conclusion deduced) Law of Syllogism The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another

PQ QR Therefore, PR. The following is an example: If Larry is sick, then he will be absent from school. If Larry is absent, then he will miss his classwork. If Larry is sick, then he will miss his classwork.

## Validity of Deductive Argument

Conclusion must be true if the premises are true. An argument can be valid even though the premises are false. An argument is sound if it is valid and the premises are true. The following is an example of an argument that is valid, but not sound: Everyone who eats steak is a quarterback. John eats steak. Therefore, John is a quarterback.

The example's first premise is false there are people who eat steak and are not quarterbacks but the conclusion must be true, so long as the premises are true. Therefore the argument is valid, but not sound.

All bats are mammals. All mammals are warm-blooded. So, all bats are warm-blooded.

Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning, also known as induction, is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general proposition that are derived from specific examples.
Examples
All life forms that we know of depend on liquid water to exist. All life depends on liquid water to exist. All of the swans we have seen are white. Therefore, all swans are white. Ahsan is a Research Scholar Most law Research Scholars own laptops. So, probably Ahsan owns a laptop.

## Quantitative Research Process

1. Theory 2. Hypothesis 3. Research Design 4. Devise measures of concepts 5. Select research site(s)
6. Select research subjects / Respondents

Important Topics Data Collection Methods Interviews Types of Interviews Questionnaire, types

7. Administer research instruments / collect data 8. Process data 9. Analysis and interpretations 10. Findings / Conclusions 11. Write up findings /conclusions

Theory
Theory is a standardized principle on which basis we can explain the relationship between two or more concepts or variables
PURPOSE OF THEORY Prediction and understanding are the two purpose of theory.

LEVELS OF THEORY 1. Abstract level At the abstract level. Concepts and propositions are the elements of theory 2. Empirical level At the empirical level theory is concerned with variables and testable hypothesis, the empirical counterparts of concepts and propositions.

## Theory at Empirical & Abstract Level

More Satisfaction increases the Motivation level Theory Higher Temperature reduces the Productivity

Satisfaction & Motivation hard work & thirst Proposition Honesty and success

Hypothesi s

Temperature & Productivity Height & Weight, Distance & Speed Height, Weight, Temperature, Distance

## Motivation, thirst, honesty, satisfaction

concept

variable

Abstract level

Empirical level

Theory Development
Theory All rosebushes have thorns

Deduction

Induction

Predicted Observation

Actual Observation

If I check my neighbors rose bushes, I should find that they all have thorns

1. Theory

2. Hypothesis

## 1. General Research Questions

Deductio n

3. Data Collection

Induction

2. Data Collection

4. Findings

3. Findings

## 5. Hypothesis confirmed or rejected

4. Generation of Theory

6. Revision of theory

Positivism Determination Reductionism Empirical observation and Interpretivism Understanding Multiple participant meanings Social and historical construction Theory generation Pragmatism Consequences of actions

## Problem centered Real-world practice oriented

Philosophical Assumptions
Sr.# 1 Philosophical Assumption Ontology: What is the nature of reality? Positivism Singular reality existing apart from researchers perception and cultural biases. (Objectivism) e.g. researchers reject or fail to reject hypothesis. Interpretivism Multiple realities shaped by researchers prior understanding (constructionism). e.g. researchers provides quotes to illustrate different perspectives. Closeness (e.g. researchers visit participants at their sites to collect data) It is cased on the perceptions of the individuals about the world. (Subjective) Biased (e.g. researchers actively talk about their biases and interpretations) Pragmatism Singular and multiple realities. e.g. researchers test hypothesis and provide multiple perspectives.

Epistemology: What is the relationship between the researcher and that being researched? What is regarded as acceptable knowledge and how we know it? Axiology: What is the role of values?

Distance and impartiality (e.g. researchers objectively collect data on instruments.) Acceptable knowledge is gained through sense and is objectively real. (Objective) Unbiased (e.g. researchers use checks to eliminate bias)

Practicality (e.g. researchers collect data by what work to address research question). Objective + Subjective

Multiple stances. (e.g. researchers include both biased and unbiased perspectives)

## Informal style. (e.g. researchers write in s literary, informal style)

Formal or informal (e.g. researchers may employ both formal and informal styles of writing). Combining (e.g. researchers collect both Quantitative an Qualitative data and mix them ) Sequential, concurrent and transformative. Both open and close ended questions; both emerging and predetermined approaches; both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis.

## Deductive (e.g. researchers that an a priori theory)

Inductive (e.g. researchers start with participants views and build up to patterns, theories and generalizations) Grounded theory, ethnography, case study and narratives Open ended questions, emerging approaches, and text and image analysis. (Qualitative)

Strategies of Inquiry

Surveys, experiments and field work Close ended questions, predetermined approaches numerical data, statistical analysis (Quantitative)

Methods