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Manufacturing Technology

Joining Processes: Classification of Welding Processes; Arc Welding- Principle of Arc, Metal Transfer, Arc Characteristics; Working and Applications of SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, SAW, ESW and AHW; Resistance Welding- Spot, Seam, Projection and Flash Butt; Gas Welding: Oxy Acetylene and Oxy Hydrogen; Thermit Welding- Solid State Welding Processes. Fusion Welding Pool and Welding Defects. Allied Processes- Brazing and Soldering, Surfacing and Spraying, Electro-Plating and Electro-Forming, Deposition Processes-PVD and CVD. Unconventional Welding: Principle of Working and Applications of Beam Welding Processes- LBW and EBW, UltraMetal Casting Fundamental: Sonic Welding and Under Water Welding; Concept of Micro-Welding Elements of Sand Mould Casting; Sand Properties and Types; Sand Testing; Moulding Methods; Design of Patterns and Cores; Design of Gating Systems; Solidification of Castings; Design and Placement of Risers. Casting Defects and Special Mould Casting Processes: Inspection of Casting. Shell Mould Casting, Vacuum Moulding; Investment Casting; Plaster and Ceramic Mould casting; Non-Expandable Mould Casting Processes - Die Casting; Centrifugal Casting; Slush Casting, Vacuum and Low Pressure Casting

Shaping of Metal Powders: Production of powders, Compacting and Sintering, Manufacturing of Powder products Shaping of Plastics: Screw Extrusion, Injection Moulding, Compression and Transfer Moulding, Blow and Rotational Moulding; Calendaring and Rapid Prototyping Operations: Thermoforming Shaping of Introduction,Lay subtractive processes, additive processes, Composites: up, Compression, Transfer and Injection Virtual Moulding; Prototyping and Filament Winding. applications. Deforming Processes: Classification of Deforming Processes, Drawing: Classification, Process Geometry,Geometrical Relationship; Analysis of Wire/ Sheet/Tube Drawing- Stresses, Load and Power, Maximum Reduction Possible. Extrusion: Classification, Process Geometry, Analysis of Extrusion-Stresses, Load and Power, Maximum Reduction Possible; Working and Application of Indirect Extrusion, Hydrostatic Extrusion, Pipe and Tube Extrusion, Defects in Extruded Parts. Sheet Metal Deforming and Cutting: Roll of sheet components, Bending: Classification, Process Geometry, Geometrical Relationship, Analysis- Bend Allowance, Spring Back and Bending Force; Other

Cutting Operations: Fundamentals of Shearing, Blanking and Piercing.Forging: Classification, Strip and Disc Forging- Process Geometry, Geometrical Relationship, Analysis- Pressure Distribution, Forging Load and Power; Defects in Forged Products Rolling: Classification; Process Geometry, Analysis-Rolling Pressure and Roll Separating Force, Friction Hill, Rolling Load, Torque and Power; Deflection of Rolls, Rolling Mills, Roll Pass Grinding and other abrasive finishing processes, grinding wheel Design, Working and Applications of Ringgrinding, Rolling, Thread Rolling, Gear selection, surface grinding, centreless Abrasive finishing Rolling and Roll Processes Piercing; Defects in Rolled Products Text/Reference Books: 1. Ghosh, A. and Mallik, A.K., Manufacturing Science, EWP Pvt. Ltd., ND. 2. Groover, M.P., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Processes, Prentice Hall International. 3. Lal, G.K., Introduction to Machining Science, New Age International Ltd., ND 4. Jain, V.K., Advance Machining Processes, Allied Publisher, Bombay


Welding is the process of joining two metallic components for the desired purpose, can be defined as the process of joining two similar or dissimilar metallic components with the application of heat, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Heat may be obtained by chemical reaction, electric arc, electrical resistance, frictional heat, sound and light energy. If no filter metal is used during welding then it is termed as Autogenous Welding Process'.

Development of Welding
ThermitWelding(1903) CellulosicElectrodes(1918) ArcStudWelding(1918) SeamWeldingofTubes(1922) MechanicalFlashWelderforJoiningRails(1924) ExtrudedCoatingforMMAWElectrodes(1926) SubmergedArcWelding(1935) AirArcGouging(1939) InertGasTungstenArc(TIG)Welding(1941) IronPowderElectrodeswithHighRecovery(1944) InertGasMetalArc(MIG)Welding(1948) ElectroSlagWelding(1951) BeamWelding(1964)

FluxCoredWirewithCO2Shielding(1954) ElectronBeamWelding(1954) ConstrictedArc(Plasma)forCutting(1955) FrictionWelding(1956) PlasmaArcWelding(1957) ElectroGasWelding(1957) ShortCircuitTransferforLowCurrent,LowVoltageWeldingwithCO2Shielding (1957) VacuumDiffusionWelding(1959) ExplosiveWelding(1960) LaserBeamWelding(1961) HighPowerCO2LaserBeamWelding(1964)

General Applications: Welding is vastly being used for construction of transport tankers for transporting oil, water, milk and fabrication of welded tubes and pipes, chains, LPG cylinders and other items. Steel furniture, gates, doors and door frames, body and other parts of white goods items such as refrigerators, washing machines, microwave ovens and many other items of general applications are fabricated by welding.

Pressure Vessels: One of the first major use of welding was in the fabrication of pressure vessels. Welding made considerable increases in the operating temperatures and pressures possible as compared to riveted pressure vessels. Bridges: Early use of welding in bridge construction took place in Australia . This was due to problems in transporting complete riveted spans or heavy riveting machines necessary for fabrication on site to remote areas. The first all welded bridge was erected in UK in 1934. Since then all welded bridges are erected very commonly and successfully. Ship Building : Ships were produced earlier by riveting. Over ten million rivets were used in Queen Mary' ship which required skills and massive organization for riveting but welding would have allowed the semiskilled/ unskilled labor and the principle of pre-fabrication. Welding found its place in ship building around 1920 and presently all welded ships are widely used. Similarly submarines are also produced by welding.

Building Structures Aircraft and Spacecraft Railways Automobiles Electrical Industry Electronic Industry Nuclear Installations Defence Industry Micro-Joining

Classification of Welding Processes

Welding processes can be classified based on following criteria; Welding with or without filler material. Source of energy of welding. Arc and Non-arc welding. Fusion and Pressure welding.

Welding with or without filler material.

Welding can be carried out with or without the application of filler material. Earlier only gas welding was the fusion process in which joining could be achieved with or without filler material. When welding was done without filler material it was called autogenous welding'. However, with the development of TIG, electron beam and other welding processes such classification created confusion as many processes shall be falling in both the categories.

Source of energy of welding

Various sources of energies are used such as chemical, electrical, light, sound, mechanical energies, but except for chemical energy all other forms of energies are generated from electrical energy for welding. So this criterion does not justify proper classification.

Arc and Non-arc welding

Arc and Non-arc welding processes classification embraces all the arc welding processes in one class and all other processes in other class. In such classification it is difficult to assign either of the class to processes such as electroslag welding and flash butt welding, as in electroslag welding the process starts with arcing and with the melting of sufficient flux the arc extinguishes while in flash butt welding tiny arcs i.e. sparks are established during the process and then components are pressed against each other. Therefore, such classification is also not perfect.

Fusion and Pressure welding

Fusion welding and pressure welding is most widely used classification as it covers all processes in both the categories irrespective of heat source and welding with or without filler material. In fusion welding all those processes are included where molten metal solidifies freely while in pressure welding molten metal if any is retained in confined space under pressure (as may be in case of resistance spot welding or arc stud welding) solidifies under pressure or semisolid metal cools under pressure. This type of classification poses no problems so it is considered as the best criterion.