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Doppler Shift

The Doppler effect in satellite communications is the change in

frequency of an electromagnetic signal that results from the relative speed of the satellite and the Earth terminal. When transmitter is moving towards the receiver, the received frequency will be higher than true transmitting frequency. When transmitter is moving away from the receiver, the received frequency will be lower than true transmitting frequency.

Solar Eclipse
A satellite is said to be in eclipse when earth prevents

sunlight from reaching it. For GEO satellites, eclipses occur during two periods that begin 23 days before the equinoxes and end 23 days after the equinoxes. (About march 21 and September 23). During eclipse, satellite does not receive any power and rely fully on batteries.

Batteries are designed to operate with maximum depth

of discharge. The Depth of Discharge (DOD) of a battery determines the fraction of power that can be withdrawn from the battery. Ground controllers perform battery conditioning prior to eclipse operation to ensure best battery performance.

In eclipses not only main power source is withdrawn,

but also the rapidity with which satellite enters and exits the shadow can cause extreme change in power and heating effects.

Sun Transit Outage

A Sun-transit outage occurs due to the particularly strong interference that results when the geometry of an orbit is such that the beam of an Earth station antenna is pointed directly at the Sun.
The sun temperature is about 6000 to 10000 K, which will add noise to our signal and hinders the communication.

The days on which maximum solar interference occurs varies according to the latitude of the Earth station; the time of day on which the interference

occurs depends on the longitude of the Earth station. Noticeable interference may be experienced for as long as ten minutes a day for several days, during which time the receiving Earth station can do nothing except wait for the Sun to move out of the antennas main lobe. Although the time lost may seem insignificant (approximately 0.01% of the year), Sun-transit outages always occur in the daytime during peak traffic loads.

In the northern hemisphere, sun outages occur before

the March equinox (February, March) and after the September equinox (September and October), and in the southern hemisphere the outages occur after the March equinox and before the September equinox.

Range Variations
Even with best station keeping system available, the position of satellite w.r.t earth exhibits a cyclic daily variation.
This will led to variation in range between satellite and user terminals. If TDMA is used, special attention needed so that particular frames reach their requisite destination.