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Conceptual Framework of Industrial Engineering

Sasaran
Memahami disiplin Teknik Industri baik yang terkait dengan:
Cakupan keilmuan, bidang garapan dan profesi Perkembangan pola pikir, keilmuan dan keahlian

Materi
Conceptual Framework of IE Evolution & Development of IE

Engineering

Science
Object : Natural System Artificial System Phenomena : Determistic Det./Probabilistic Output : Theory/Knowledge Product/service Performance : Truth Benefit Validity : Absolute Relative Start : Curiosity Need/Problem Profession : Scientist Engineer

Industrial Engineering
Integrated System Prob/Uncertainty Value Added Efficiency Contextual Need/Problem Industrial Engineer 4

Science
Prime objective: increase knowledge of natural system Research (Scientific Method)
Formulate Hypothesis Execute Experiment Analyze Result Generalize Hypothesis Theory/Law (New Knowledge) Publish the New Knowledge

Basic Knowledge And Tool


Basic knowledge
Logic Creativity

Tool
Analysis Synthesis

Process
Scientific Research
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Engineering
Prime objective: use the knowledge to design and develops usable devices, structure and processes for better human life

Design Process
Identification of Need Problem Definition Search Constraint Criteria Alternative Solution Analysis Decision Specification Communication

Basic Knowledge And Tool


Basic knowledge
Mathematics Natural Sciences

Tool
Analysis Synthesis

Process
Applied Research Design 8

Basic Engineering Process


Symptom/Need Problem (Incl.Outcome)

Analysis(Incld. Exptation)

Synthesis of Alt.Solution

Decision ( Best Altv.) Solution, System or Method

Characteristic Of Engineer

Solve Problem Analyze Design System


Creativity Analysis Synthesis
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Engineering Function
Research Development Design Production &Testing Construction Operation

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Engineering Era
Early
Era : Before 1750 Knowledge : -Mathematics -Physics

Modern
- After 1750 - Not Only Mathematics & Physics
* Chemical

* Molecular * Social Sciences

Object

: Physical System

- Not Only Physical System * Life System


Abstract

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Early Engineering Era


Egyptian Engineering (3200 BC) Mesopotamian Engineering (2000 BC) Greek Engineering (500 BC) Roman Engineering (320 BC) Oriental Engineering European Engineering
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Modern Engineering Era

Big Five Engineering


Civil Mechanical Electrical Chemical Industrial Engineering

Newer Engineering
. Nuclear . Computer . Bioengineering . Environmental . Etc.
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Big 5 Disciplines
Military Engineering

Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering


Mathematics + Physics Mechanical Principle Steam Engine

Electrical Engineering
Mathematics + Physics Electrical Science Telegraph: Samuel Morse Carbon filament lamp: Thomas Edison

Chemical Engineering
Mathematics + Physics + Chemistry Mathematics +Physics +Man Synthetic Material Integrated System

Industrial Engineering
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Why IE Was Born ?


As a Result of Industrial Revolution Need for Technically Trained People Who Could Plan, Organize, and Manage the Operations of Large Complex System Need to Increase Productivity and Efficiency of Operation System
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Pioneers Of IE
Adam SMITH Charles BABBAGE Eli WHITNEY Henry TOWNE Frederick W TAYLOR Frank B GILBERTH Lillian GILBERTH
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Adam SMITH (1723-1790)


Wealth of Nations (1776)
Specialization of Labor
Division of the task in pin making into 4 separate operations increased output by a factor of almost 5 10 worker could produce 48.000 pins per day
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Adam Smith (1723-1790)


Keuntungan adanya pembagian kerja dengan memberikan contoh sebuah pabrik jarum. Di dalam pabrik jarum tersebut seorang buruh secara pasti dapat membuat 20 buah jarum sehari. Dari hasil kunjungan Smith atas suatu pabrik jarum yang telah melakukan pembagian pekerjaan, ternyata 10 orang buruh dapat membuat 48.000 buah jarum, dengan pembagian pekerjaan yaitu ada yang khusus menarik kawat, ada yang khusus memotongnya dan ada yang khusus meruncingkan jarumnya, serta lainnya.

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Dari keadaan tersebut dapat dikemukakan bahwa pembagiaan pekerjaan yang dilaksanakan itu dapat mempertinggi hasil produksi setiap buruh dari 20 buah menjadi 4800 buah jarum atau meningkatkan sebanyak 240 kali lipat.

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Pembagian pekerjaan sering dibedakan menjadi dua pengertian, yang pertama adalah membagi pekerjaan menjadi sederhana sehingga semua buruh

dengan tingkat keahlian tertentu dapat melakukan


pekerjaan. Pengertian yang kedua adalah pembagian pekerjaan bersusun yang membagi pekerjaan suatu

kegiatan produksi menjadi beberapa bagian.

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Di dalam perkembangannya, konsep pembagian pekerjaan terus berkembang dan terarah kepada kegiatan pekerjaan yang terspesialisasikan, dan di dalam kegiatan produksi yang lebih modern terjadi pembagian pekerjaan sistem ban berjalan (conveyor system). Produksi masal mobil oleh Ford sendiri juga terinspirasi dari konsep pembagian pekerjaan, sehingga ongkos produksi semakin murah. Dengan ongkos produksi yang lebih efisien, harga yang ditawarkan dapat lebih kompetitif dengan produk lain. Saat ini konsep pembagian pekerjaan telah digunakan secara luas di hampir seluruh sektor industri.
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Keuntungan pembagian pekerjaan


1. Setiap orang dapat melakukan pekerjaan yang sesuai dengan bakatnya. 2. Dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan di pekerjaan tersebut sehingga lebih mantap. dalam

3. Orang yang bersangkutan mengerjakan pekerjaan yang sama secara berkelanjutan sehingga dapat menghindarkan kehilangan waktu, ini berarti semakin efisien.
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Charles BABBAGE (1832)


On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacture (1832)
motion and time study division of labor

Result of factory visit in England and USA(early 1800) Observed the manufacture of straight pins that:
involve 7 distinct operations measured the cost and time of performing each operation Money Could Be Saved Using Woman and Children

Critics : Do not attempt to improve the work methods or reduce the operation time

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Charles Babbage (1832)


Menulis buku : 1.On the Economy of Machinery and manufacturers
Membuat prototipe: 2.different engine (prototipe kalkulator mekanis); serta 3.analytical engine (prototipe komputer).
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Eli Whitney
Konsep Produksi interchangeabledan
Konsep Produksi Massal (Mass-Production) Melalui Pembuatan Cetakan (die mould).
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Henry TOWNE
The Engineer As Economist (1886)

Stressed the Need for Engineers to Be Concerned With the Profitability Effect of Their Decisions

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Henry Towne (1886)


Menulis paper The Engineers as Economist
Dalam jurnal Transaction of ASME yang menekankan perlunya engineer untuk memperhatikan aspek ekonomis (costs/profits) dalam setiap proyek teknis maupun keputusan yang diambil.
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Frederick Winslow TAYLOR


(1856-1915)

FW Taylor was Influenced by Towne and Wentworth 1874 : Machinist Apprentice in the Hydraulic Work 1983 : Mechanical Engineer From Stevens Institute and Work at Midvale Steel Company 1881 : Began Study of Metal Cutting 1895 : Presented A Piece Rate System at ASME Meeting 1903 : Presented Shop Management 1909 : Presented Principle of Scientific Management
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Frederick Winslow TAYLOR (1856-1915)


1895 menyajikan paper A Piece of Rate System pada pertemuan ASME.
1903 menyajikan Shop Management yang menyangkut beberapa prinsip dan konsep mengenai methods study, time study, standardization of tools, planning department, classification systems for parts and products, routing system, dll. Tanggapan kurang positif.
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Frederick Winslow TAYLOR (1856-1915)


1907 menulis makalah panjang (200 halaman) berjudul Study of Metal Cutting pada Transaction of ASME (rumus Taylor yang terkait dengan biaya produksi dan umur pahat).
1909 menulis The Principles of Scientific Management yang sangat kontroversial dan fenomental : (1) menaikkan output produksi sekaligus menurunkan biaya operator, namun juga menaikkan gaji/upah mereka, (2) melatih operator dan meminta mereka bekerja pada kemampuan maksimal untuk kenaikan upah (bonus/insentif) yang melebihi standard.

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Principle of Scientific Management


1. Develop a science for each element of a mans work, which replaces the old rule of thumb method 2. Select scientifically and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas previously he chose his own work methods and trained himself as best as he could 3. Cooperate heartily with the men so as to ensure that all of the work being done is in accordance with the principles of the science which has been develop 4. There is almost an equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and the workmen. The management takes over all work for which they are better fitted than the workman.
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Empat Prinsip Manajemen Ilmiah-Taylor


1. Buatlah ilmu untuk tiap elemen pekerjaan dengan standardisasi penerapannya dan metode kerja yang efisien 2. Lakukan seleksi karyawan secara ilmiah, yakni sesuaikan keahlian dan kemampuan karyawan dengan jenis pekerjaan yang ditekuninya, lalu didik dan latih karyawan tersebut dengan cara yang paling efisien.
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3. Pastikan karyawan bersikap kooperatif dengan cara memberikan insentif, dan sediakan lingkungan kerja yang dapat mendorong terciptanya hasil kerja yang optimal melalui cara-cara yang ilmiah. 4. Bagilah tanggung jawab kerja antara tanggung jawab managing dengan tanggung jawab working (pelaksana) sembari mendukung individu-individu pada tiap kelompok kerja untuk mengerjakan apa yang mereka paling mampu kerjakan.

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Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (1868 1924)


Frank Gilbreth (1868 -1924) Sambil bekerja sekaligus mengevaluasi dan memperbaiki sistem kerjanya sendiri. Meningkatkan produktivitas hampir tiga kali lipat hanya dengan cara mengurangi gerakannya dengan mengatur lokasi/ penempatan bahan baku. Menganalisa kerja dan menyusun klasifikasi gerakan kerja mikro (micromotion study) dengan mengintroduksi elemen-elemen gerakan Therbligs. Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972) Istri dari Frank Gilbreth, seorang doktor psikologi. Mengkoreksi pendekatan yang menempatkan manusia sebagai bagian dari mesin kerja dengan lebih menekankan pada aspek perilaku (behavior) manusia.

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Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (1868 1924)

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Industrial Engineering ?
Industrial Engineering Is Concerned With the Design, Improvement, and Installation of Integrated Systems of People, Material, Information, Equipment, and Energy. It Draws Upon Specialized Knowledge and Skill in the Mathematical, Physical, and Social Sciences Together With the Principles and Methods of Engineering Analysis and Design to Specify, Predict, and Evaluate the Results to Be Obtained From Such System

Object

Knowledge

Skill

Job
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Industrial Engineering ?

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Object
Integrated System

People/Man

+
Material + Equipment + Information + Energy
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Schematic Representation of Integrated System


Environment Boundary Man
Machine

Input
Mat

Out-put

Feed-back

: Interaction

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Types of Research

Basic Research - Curiosity


- Theory/Explanation - Neutral - Public Domain Discovery

Applied Research
- Need/Problem - Product/Service/Method - Purposive - Private Domain
Invention
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Knowledge
Mathematics Physics Social Sciences

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Skill
Method of Engineering Analysis Design

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Job
Design Installation Improvement

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Performance
Efficiency

Effective

Min Cost

Objective Achievement/Actual
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Contextual

2+2=?
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Kompetensi Teknik Industri Menyongsong Masa Depan


Sumber: Sinks, DS. Can IEs Become Master of Change? Journal Industrial Engineering, December 1985

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What Design IE Do ?
Integrated System Industrial System (Manufacturing System)

Human Activity System

Management Control System


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What Does IE Do ?

Production Operations

Management System

Corporate Services
*Comprehensive Planning *Policies & Procedures * Performance Measurement * Analysis

* Product &Services * Information System * Manufacturing Process * Financial &Cost System * Facilities * Personnel * Work Methods & Standards * Production Planning & Control

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Phase-Phase Perkembangan Aktivitas Produksi di Industri


Phase-Phase Perkembangan Job Order Macam & Volume Produk Customized, kecil, terbatas Standard, seri, batch, massal Area Lokasi Pemasaran Lokal Sifat Perubahan Terjadi Tersendat, trial & error Lambat, Scientific Method Cepat Periode

Sebelum revolusi industri Revolusi Industri 1930 1930 1950 1950 - Skg

Mass Production

Regional

Mass Marketing Mass Customization

Diversifikasi, banyak model

Nasional

Sangat terdiver Global/ Turbulent sifikasi & Internasional masal

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Evolution and Development of Industrial Engineering Dicipline

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Chronology Of Development In The Evolution Of IE


Macro View Micro View
Operation Research Industrial Engineering Scientific Management Industrial & System Engineering

Interchangeable Time Part Accounting Studi

Piece Work

Layout SQC

Net- Optimi- Autowork zation mation

CIM

1494

1750

1890

1900 1915
World War I

1929
Depres sion

1941
World War II

1958
Space Age

1980

1990

2000

Industrial Revolution

High Globalization Technology

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Relationship of Industrial Engineering to Other Engineering and Scientific Disciplines


Logic

Statistics
Electrical Engineering

Quality & Reliability Operation Research Computer & Inf.Sci


Control Theory

Mathematics

Physics

Civil Engineering
Military Engineering

Mechanical Engineering
Psychology and Sociology

Early Industrial Engineering (Scientific Management) Productivity Science Early Management Philosophy

Industrial Engineering

Ergonomics

Manufacturing Engineering
Chemistry

Economics

Chemical Engineering

Physiology

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IE Thought
Scientific Management Adm & Behavior Management Management Science Systemic & Integrated

Man-Machine System

Human and Organization

Optimization and Modeling

Integrated System

End of 18 Century

End of 18 Century

Beginning of 20 Century

Mid of 20 Century

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Obyek dan Keilmuan Teknik Industri


Obyek
Work Station

Komponen
Man, Machine Material

Keilmuan
Ergonomy Eng. Economy Psychology Inventory, PPC Quality Control Lay out, OR & Modeling Management Leadership Behavior Science

Kinerja
Productivity Efficiency QCD

Manufactur Man, Machine Material

Company

Labor, Facility Material Labor, Material Infrastructure

ROI, IRR, ROE

Industrial System

Policy Quality Systemic Approach Welfare


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Perkembangan Teknik Industri S/D 1950


TOKOH-TOKOH:
Adam Smith (1776) : Specialisation, productivity Charles Babbage (1832): Pembagian kerja Frederick W. Taylor (1905): Scientific management Frank & Lilian Gilberth (1912): Micro-motion study Fayol : The 14 Principle of Management

ORGANISASI:

Society to Promote the Science of Management (1912), The Taylor Society (1915), Society of Industrial Engineers (1917). Wealth of Nations: spesialisasi / keahlian untuk produktivitas Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers: pembagian kerja Principles of Scietific Management Human Factors: micro-motion economy Principle of Management

KONSEP-KONSEP:

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Perkembangan Teknik Industri 1950 - 1970


AIIE : American Institute of Industrial Engineers (1948)
BIDANG PERHATIAN:
Teknik tata Cara Pengukuran Kerja Pengendalian: Produksi, Persediaan, Mutu, Beaya, Anggaran Evaluasi Jabatan, Sistem Pengupahan: analisis jabatan, analisis kinerja, upah perangsang, administrasi pengupahan Rancangan dan Fasilitas Pabrik: tata letak, pengadaan dan peremajaan peralatan, perancangan produk, perkakas, peralatan.

SARANA:

Statistika, Penelitian Operasional, Psikologi Industri

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Perkembangan Teknik Industri 1970 - 1990


AIIE menjadi IIE
BIDANG PERHATIAN:
Bidang Industri, : Antariksa, Bank dan Keuangan, Industri Bidang Sistem Manusia dan Informasi : Komputer dan
Elektronika, Pemerintahan, Seni Grafis, Pelayanan Kesehatan, Retail, Industri Baja, Transportasi dan Distribusi, Utilitas

Sistem Informasi, Ekonomi Teknik, Ergonomi, Hubungan Kerja dan Industri, Manajemen, Pengukuran Kerja, Tatacara.
dan Perencanaan Fasilitas, Sistem Manufaktur, Penelitian Operasional, Pengendalian produksi dan Persediaan, Pengendalian Mutu, Keandalan.

Bidang Sistem Produksi : Manajemen Energi, Perancangan

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Perkembangan Sejak 1990


TOPIK-TOPIK BARU:
CIM : Computer Integrated Manufacturing DSS : Decision Support System JIS : Just-in-Time Process Planning Perkembangan Variasi dari Sistem Produksi, Penelitian Operasional, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, dsb. Knowledge-based Management, dll. TOPIK-TOPIK LAMA TETAP BERKEMBANG: Ergonomi, dsb.

DIDASARI OLEH PERKEMBANGAN KOMPUTER DAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI


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Proyeksi Perkembangan Abad Ke -21


SANGAT DIPENGARUHI OLEH TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI:

PERUBAHAN POLA KERJA, GAYA HIDUP, TRANSAKSI: Kerja individual, outsourcing / networking, modal maya Internet driven : E-commerce, e-mail, distance learning & services KEPEMIMPINAN MASA DEPAN:

Perubahan pola kerja, gaya hidup dan bentuk transaksi Perubahan gaya kepemimpinan dan manajemen Pergeseran pengendali kekuasaan ekonomi dan politik

PENGENDALI KEKUASAAN:

Visioner, Kreatif, Transformatif, Komunikatif, Memberdayakan, Integratif-Networking-Sinergis, High-Touch & High-Tech, Antisipatif, Adaptif, Kompeten. Bergeser dari Pimpinan Negara ke Pimpinan Pengendali Informasi

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Kronologis Perkembangan Disiplin Teknik Industri

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Chronological Development of Production Technology (Hardware) and Production Methodology (Software)

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The Role of the Industrial Engineers in Integrating New Technologies (1960 1980)

Sumber : Pritsker, AB. Defining the Role of the Industrial Engineer in Integrating New Technologies. Journal of Industrial Engineering, December 1985. Management

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The Role of the Industrial Engineers in Integrating New Technologies (1980 2000)

Sumber : Pritsker, AB. Defining the Role of the Industrial Engineer in Integrating New Technologies. Journal of Industrial Engineering, December 1985. Management

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