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Ms. Sneetha Saji Faculty Department of Business Administration MACFAST (2010-12)


What is a Computer?
CPU (Central Processing Unit) consists of ALU
(Arithmetic & Logic Unit) and Control Unit

Memory (Physical memory, Primary Memory, RAM /


Input (Key board) & Output Devices (Monitor) Mass Storage Devices (Hard Disk)
Intel Core 2 Duo CPU, 1.83 GHz, 2.99 GB RAM

A global network connecting millions of computers linking more than 100 countries Each computer node in the internet is called a host. A host works independently. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most popular way to gain access to internet is through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP). E-mail, instant messaging, FTP etc - internet services

World Wide Web ( W W W )

The World Wide Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents The web documents are formatted in a language that supports links to other documents, graphics, audio, and video files. HTML (HyperText Markup Language), is a predominant markup language used in Web

The Web uses the HTTP protocol, to transmit data. Web services, use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic. W3C consortium guides the technical development and standards of WWW

Web Browser
Web browser is an application (a set of software programs) which helps us to access the World Wide Web Some of the most popular web browsers are Google Chrome, Fire fox and Internet Explorer

Web browsers are used to access Web documents, aka, Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain text, graphics, sounds and video.

Web Server
A computer that delivers (serves) Web pages. Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet. There are many Web server software applications, including public domain software from NCSA and Apache, and commercial packages from Microsoft, Netscape, WAS from IBM, Weblogic from Oracle etc

Web Site
A website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets. A web site is hosted on one or more web servers A website is accessible via the Internet or a private local area network The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the homepage

Uniform Resource Locator Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name. For example, if you enter the URL in your browser, this sends a request to the server whose domain name is server then fetches the page named index.html and sends it to your browser


The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet

So the Web is just a portion of the Internet, albeit a large portion, but the two terms are not synonymous and should not be confused.

IP (Internet Protocol) Address

A logical address assigned to devices participating in a computer network The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the global IP address space


IP Address Allocation
IANA works in cooperation with five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to Local Internet Registries (Internet service providers) and other entities Any user may use the IP address block,,,

Brief History - Internet

1970s: Internet (FTP, Telnet), Email 1970s: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
Used by the banking industry to exchange account information over secured networks

Late 1970s and early 1980s: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Used by businesses to transmit data from one business to another

1989: Commercial use of Email was allowed


Brief History - WWW

Started in 1989 as a way of transferring documents Graphical web browser was developed in 1993 Dial up servers came in 1994 1997 1 million web sites 2006 100 million web sites




E - business
"eBusiness" or "e-business or an internet business. (Electronic Business) The application of information and communication technology (ICT) in support of all the activities of business.

Conducting business via internet

E-tailing, or virtual storefronts on Web sites. Online business-to-business transactions. Electronic data interchange (EDI), the business-to-business exchange of data using compatible software. E-mail, instant messaging, and other Web-enabled communication tools and their use as media for reaching prospective and existing customers. The gathering and use of demographic, product, and other information through Web contacts.

Business Web Sites

Reduce cost and transaction times Save time and money by providing quick and efficient services Improve internal and external Supply Chain Management Provide anywhere, anytime services; 24x7 service across the world Increase customer support, communication and relationship management Compete worldwide with our website against businesses of all types.

Business Web Sites

Increase a firms visibility, promote its offerings, and provide information to interested parties. Build customer goodwill and assist retailers and other resellers in their marketing efforts. Disseminate financial information to investors. Enable prospective employees to apply online for jobs. Provide e-mail communication.

Capabilities and Benefits of E-Business

Global Reach
Goods and services can be sold to customers worldwide.

Companies can customize products and reduce inventory.

Customers and suppliers can negotiate prices online.

Right-time and integrated marketing

Online retailers provide products when and where customers want them and promotions can be directed to individual customers.

Cost savings
E-business can reduce costs.





Commerce & Business

Any business transaction that results in a financial exchange is commerce. Commerce refers to the activities involved in the purchase and sales of goods or services (sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service etc) Business is a superset of commerce that includes additional functions like marketing

Electronic Commerce / E-Commerce

Electronic commerce is doing commerce over electronic communication network Buying and selling products and services over the internet. It normally uses computers, internet and commerce-enabling software. Commerce enabling software includes applications like e-mail, instant messaging, FTP, EFT, EDI, Web services, Shopping carts etc Brick & Mortar Vs Click & Conquer

e Commerce vs e Business
Information exchanges related to buying and selling Transfer of funds through digital communication e Commerce Servicing Collaborating with business partners, distributers and suppliers CRM SCM ERP eBusiness enables companies to link their internal and external processes more efficiently and flexibly Inventory is optimized New technology in the value chain Transform competitive landscapes. 23

Some factors of importance in ebusiness

Supports business processes along the entire value chain eBusiness processes are integrated end-to-end across the company and with the key partners, suppliers and customers It helps respond with flexibility and speed to customer demands and market opportunities To succeed it is crucial to combine technological developments with corporate strategy that redefines a companys role in the digital economy Helps redefine concepts such as value, competitiveness and the very nature of transactions.

1. Collaborative Product Development
Facilitates different organizations to work together on the development of a product Contributes towards making products within a short span of time while maintaining quality and reducing cost. Shorten the complete cycle time of its products

2. Collaborative planning, forecasting & replenishment

Process in which manufacturers, distributors and retailers work together to plan, forecast and replenish products Sharing information Trading partners work from a common forecast or plan in which the information is shared in real-time over digital networks.

3. Procurement and Order Management

e-Procurement can achieve significant savings and other benefits that impact the customer Integrated electronic ordering process used Control the supply base, negotiating effective buying preferences and streamlining the entire procurement process.

4. Operations and Logistics

Part of the supply chain process that plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements Sharing of critical and timely data on the movement of goods as they flow from raw materials to the end user. Eliminates costly discrepancies b/w purchase order, sales order and shipping information. Increases customer satisfaction

Where is e-Business Used

Advertisement Knowledge relating to bank accounts Online booking Auction Tax returns Retail shopping Helpful in bridging the gap between manufacturer and consumer.

BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS Available at anywhere, anytime Competitive rates Better customer service Availability of large sellers Quick services Purchasing from home Easy interaction Ecommerce is revolutionary created new ways of ourchase

BENEFITS TO ORGANISATIONS Customers are self created automatic publicity Middlemen disappears Cost effective Opportunities for new businesses Customisation of products and services Search for potential business partners

Costly Lack of information about customers habits, interests and aptitude Lack of faith Insecurity of customers Cyber laws Competition among sellers Change in technology Underestimation of time requirements Lack of training programmes