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HVAC

The Basics of Heating, Ventilation


and Air Conditioning

HVAC
Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning
Provides comfort for people
Allows humans to exist under
adverse conditions.
Basic Refrigeration Cycle
Expansion
Valve
Compressor
Evaporator
Condenser
Comfort
Comfort is primary intent of HVAC systems.
Productivity
Building Durability
Health


Load Calculations
Heating and Cooling
Accuracy important!
Design conditions
Building shell load
R, U value
Internal load
Ventilation load
Infiltration
Occupancy schedules




Heat Transfer
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Resistance (R-Value)
U = 1 / R
Q = U x A x AT

U-Value is the rate of
heat flow in Btu/h
through a one ft
2
area
when one side is 1
o
F
warmer

The amount of solar
heat energy allowed to
pass through a window
Example: SHGC = 0.40
Allows 40% through and
turns 60% away
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
Psychrometrics
Dry bulb temp.
Wet bulb temp.
Humidity
Dew point
Moisture content
Heating
Cooling
Humidify
De-Humidify
Psychrometric Chart
Basic HVAC Equipment
Fans / Blowers
Furnace / Heating unit
Filters
Compressor
Condensing units
Evaporator (cooling coil)
Control System
Air Distribution System
System Types and Common Terms
Packaged Rooftop
Unit
Split System
Heat Pump
Geothermal
Air to Air
Hydronic (water)
PTAC / PTHP
Constant Volume
Variable Volume
Indoor Air Quality
Direct Expansion
Packaged Rooftop Units

FURNACE
A/C UNIT
Ductwork
Heating
and Cooling
Equipment
Temperature &
Humidity Controls
Split System
Heat Pump
Operate on simple
refrigeration cycle
Reversing the cycle
provides heating
Temperature
limitations
Air to air
Water source
Geothermal
Lake coupled
Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
Variable Air Volume
T
T
Variable Speed
Return Fan
R
e
t
u
r
n

A
i
r

Return Ducts
Zone Thermostat
Reheat Coil
VAV Box
Supply Ducts
Variable Speed
Supply Fan
F
i
l
t
e
r
s

C
o
o
l

C
o
i
l

w
/
T
e
m
p

R
e
s
e
t

H
e
a
t

C
o
i
l

w
/
T
e
m
p

R
e
s
e
t

HVAC-16
Hydronic systems
Pumps
Piping
Valves
Control Devices
Thermostats
Manual
Programmable
Optimum Start
DDC Systems
Variable Speed Drives
Automatic Valves and Dampers
Outdoor Sensors




Major Equipment
Chillers
Boilers
Cooling Towers
Economizers
Air Side
Water Side
Economizers
Free cooling source: When available, use cool outdoor air instead
of mechanically cooled air.
55
o
F
80
o
F
Minimum supply
of outside air
Normal Operation
Outside air dampers are
positioned to provide the
minimum outside air
Economizer Operation
Outside air dampers are fully
open. Maximum outside air is
provided
80
o
F
55
o
F and
up
85%
outside
air
85%
exhaust
HVAC-22
Zoning and Economizers
Economizers provide free cooling
when outdoor conditions are optimal

Proper orientation & zoning yields
comfort & efficiency

N
S
W E Core
HVAC-23
Air Distribution
Ductwork
Metal
Flexible
Ductboard
Grilles, Louvers,
& Registers
Dampers
Shut off
Fire
Smoke
Sealants
Supports


Additional Equipment
Energy Recovery Units
Desiccant Systems

Additional Equipment
Heat Exchangers
Humidifiers
Silencers


Mechanical Dehumidification
Return air is mixed with ventilation air
Cold coil condenses moisture
Heat is added back (electric or gas) so that
room air is not over cooled- Reheat
F
i
l
t
e
r

Historical Minimum Ventilation Rates
(cfm/person)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1
8
3
5
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
9
1
8
5
6
1
8
6
3
1
8
7
0
1
8
7
7
1
8
8
4
1
8
9
1
1
8
9
8
1
9
0
5
1
9
1
2
1
9
1
9
1
9
2
6
1
9
3
3
1
9
4
0
1
9
4
7
1
9
5
4
1
9
6
1
1
9
6
8
1
9
7
5
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
6
Tredgold
1836
Nightengale
1865
Billings
1895
Flugge
1905
Yaglou
1938
ASHRAE
62-73
ASHRAE 62-81
Smoking 62-81
ASH-
RAE
62-89
Smoking 62-89
Improved Ventilation Effectiveness
Mechanically provide filtered and
dehumidified outdoor air to the
breathing space
Vary ventilation based on the
number of occupants and process
loads - changes in occupancy can
be measured by CO
2
sensors
Consider designs that separate
ventilation and space conditioning
Utilize heat recovery systems to
reduce system size and ventilation
energy costs
Improved Ventilation Effectiveness
Effective mixing of ventilation
air within space
Net positive pressure in the
southeast; exhaust from
appropriate spaces
Provide clean outdoor air,
avoid:
loading docks
exhaust vents
plumbing stacks
waste collection
stagnant water
HEAT LOAD CALCULATION
TOPICS COVERED
LOAD CALCULATIONS
FORMS
FORMULAS
TABLES
FACTORS
AIR SIDE
PSYCHROMETRY
HEAT LOAD FORM
HEAT LOAD ESTIMATE
General office
Ceiling 10
Wall 4 brick, plastered both side
Window- ordinary single glass internal
shade
Door- plywood sandwich air space
Occupants - 35 person
Lighting - Fluorescent
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Outdoor design conditions
92F db / 80F wb or 95db/83wb
Overestimating effect
Night time temp. & rh different
76F db/ 75F wb / 95% rh
HEAT LOAD 2 35
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Indoor design conditions
Base on requirement and standards
75F db / 55% rh
72F db / 55% rh
71F db / 50% rh
Peak time at
4.00 pm
HEAT LOAD 2 36
CURRENT AIR-CONDITIONING DESIGN DATA
COMPARISON
ASHRAE 95 CIBSE
INDOOR
TEMP.(
o
C)
23-26 22+/-2
LIGHTING LOAD
(w/ft
2
)
1.85-4.65 1.4
OFFICE EQUIP.
(w/ft
2
)
0.8-2 1.4
OUTLET
VELOCITY
(ft/min.)
40-150 -
FRESH AIR
(cfm/person)
20 20
SOLAR GAIN THROUGH GLASS
Cooling Load = Window Area x Peak solar
heat gain (Table 4) x Storage Factor (Table 5) x
Shade Factor (Table 6)
Refer to Table 4, Table 5 and Table 6
SOLAR AND TRANSMISSION GAIN
Heat Gain Through Walls & Roofs = Area x
Equivalent Temp. Difference (Table 7 for wall &
Table 8 for roof) x Transmission Coefficient (U)
(Table 9)

TRANSMISSION GAIN (EXCEPT
WALLS AND ROOFS)
Heat gain through all glass = Area x
Temp. Difference (OA - RA) x
Transmission coefficient (U) (Table 9)
Heat gain through shade wall,
partition = Area x Temp. Difference
(OA - RA - 5F) x Transmission
coefficient (U) (Table 9)
TRANSMISSION GAIN (EXCEPT
WALLS AND ROOFS) (2)
Heat gain through wall, partition (adjacent to
Kitchen,Boiler Room) = Area x Temp.
Difference (OA - RA + 15F to 25F) x
Transmission coefficient (U) (Table 9)
INFILTRATION
When ventilation exceeds
infiltration (+ve pressure), then
infiltration = 0
When rooms are design at -ve
pressure, have to consider
INTERNAL LOADS
People
No. of people from no. of chairs or base on per
floor area
Table 10 - Heat gain from people
No. of people x Table 10
Activity, Sensible & Latent

INTERNAL LOADS
Power
Table 53 - Heat gain from electric motors
Electric motors contribute only sensible heat to
space
INTERNAL LOADS
Lights - Estimate (w/ft
2
)
Lights - Type
Incandescent
rated lamp watt x 3.413
Fluorescent lamp
rated lamp watt x 1.25 x 3.413
INTERNAL LOADS
Appliances
most appliances contributes both sensible and
latent heat load.
They contribute latent heat by virtue of their
function ex. drying, cooking
Hood to remove this is most effective
Table 50 & 51- Heat Gain from Restaurant
SAFETY FACTOR
Safety factor added for possible error in the
survey
Over estimating safety factor will cause
oversized air conditioning equipment - difficult
to maintain space conditions
< 5%
ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT (RSH)
Now all the load components contributing to
sensible load can be added
SUPPLY AIR DUCT LOSSES
In transferring air from system cooling coil to
space, four losses must be considered;
Supply duct heat gain
supply duct leakage loss
fan heat
bypassed outdoor air
SUPPLY DUCT HEAT GAIN
Supply air in the duct at 50F to 60F passes
through surrounding environment above 90F
- potential heat gain to supply air
Insulation reduces this gain
Typical figure < 2% of RSH
SUPPLY DUCT LEAKGE LOSS
Lost capacity in the supply air duct depends
on duct shape, duct pressure and
workmanship.
Low pressure (0 - 2s.p) : <5%
Medium pressure (2 - 6s.p) : 2% - 3%
High pressure (6 & above) : <1%
FAN HEAT
Draw through (draw through the cooling coil)
fan add heat to air supply. Electrical losses for
motor which lies in the air stream also add
heat
< 5%
HEAT LOAD 2 52
BYPASS OUTDOOR AIR
Some of the air passing through the coil
remain untreated.
Load equivalent to infiltration load
Depends on bypass factors use
Load = cfm x (t
oa
-t
rm
) x bf x 1.09
EFFECTIVE ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT
(ERSH)
This load determine the cfm required across
the cooling coil
ERSH = RSH + (SUPPLY DUCT GAIN + SUPPLY
DUCT LEAK LOSS + FAN) + BYPASS OUTDOOR
AIR
LATENT LOAD
The latent counterpart of infiltration, internal
loads, and supply duct load are also calculated
to determine the Room Latent Heat and
Effective Room Latent Heat
Vapor Transmission - only for low or high dew
point application.
ROOM LATENT HEAT (RLH)
SUM OF ALL ROOM LATENT LOAD
INFILTRATION
PEOPLE
STEAM
APPLIANCES
ADDITIONAL HEAT GAINS
VAPOUR TRANSMISSION
EFFECTIVE ROOM LATENT LOAD
(ERLH)
ROOM LATENT HEAT (RLH) + SUPPLY DUCT
LEAKAGE LOSS + BYPASS OUTDOOR AIR
OUTDOOR AIR / VENTILATION
RATES
Outdoor air/ventilation rates from Table 11-Ventilation Std.
Outdoor air quantity can be determined either by
cfm/person or cfm/ft
2
or airchange rate (ach)
Air change is defined as the quantity of changed air every
hour
cfm = vol x ach/ 60
OUTDOOR AIR HEAT
Outdoor air heat comprised of both sensible
and latent load
Except for bypassed air, the load appears on
the upstream of the coil
Requirements of outdoor/fresh air base on air
change rate or cfm/sq.ft or per person
RETURN DUCT LOSSES
Return duct are normally shorter than supply
duct
Temperature of air at about 75F - 80F
Return duct slightly negative
1% for Return duct heat gain &
1% for return duct leakage loss
GRAND TOTAL HEAT
Total heat load the coil must remove from the
air passing over it.
Also known as dehumidifier load
REFRIGERATION LOAD
Introducing two additional loads not
experience by the coil
Piping sensible heat gain
Pumping heat gain
APPARATUS DEW POINT (ADP)
Effective Room Sensible Heat (ERSH) Effective Room
Total Heat (ERTH)
ADP obtained from plot ESHF line or Table 65
Indicated ADP & Selected ADP
ADP must be > 48F
HVAC Systems Duct Design
Fundamentals
Velocity
fpm



Velocity Pressure
in. w.g.
A
Q
V =
2
4005
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
p
v
Fundamentals
Static Pressure
Total Pressure Velocity Pressure
Total Pressure (loss)
Darcy Weisbach Equation
p A
12f L
D
h
--------------
EC +
\ .
|
| |

V
1097
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
=
Pressure Changes
Design Procedures
Arrange outlets/inlets
Adjust calculated air quantities for
Heat gain/loss
Leakage
Duct
Equipment (VAV box)
Accessories (dampers, sensors, access doors,etc.)
Space pressurization
Design Procedures
Select outlet sizes based on manufacturer's
data
Sketch the system (connect the dots)
Divide the system into sections
Section is any change in flow, size, shape
Size the system using required/preferred
method
Design Procedures
Calculate the system total pressure loss
Layout the system in detail
Space limitations
Obstructions/coordination concerns
Resize duct sizes to balance
Analyze noise levels
Use sound attenuation where necessary
Design Methods Overview
Equal Friction
Size ductwork based on a constant pressure loss
per unit length (.08-.1 in. w.g. per 100 ft.)
Larger sizes require less energy but have a higher
initial cost
Smaller sizes require more energy but will have a
reduced initial cost.
Practical for simple systems
Duct Calculators
Design Methods Overview
Static Regain
Obtain the same static pressure at diverging flows
Change duct sizes down stream
Iterative process best handled by computers
Start the process by selecting a maximum velocity in the root
section
Higher velocities require more energy but have a lower initial cost
Lower velocities require less energy but have a higher initial cost
Design Methods Overview
T-method
Calculation intensive (use software)
Considers current building costs, energy costs and
future costs.
The calculation process involves:
condensing the system
fan selection (the simulation uses actual fan curves)
expanding the system
Design Methods Overview
Extended Plenum
1-6 in. w.g. systems
Duct velocity up to 3000 fpm
Branch velocity should not exceed trunk velocity
Balancing dampers should be used at each branch
Can result in low velocities
Excessive heat gain/loss
Design Methods Overview
Extended Plenum
Low operating cost
Easier to balance
Less fittings
Easy to modify for (tenant changes)
Design Methods Overview
Constant Velocity
Used primarily for material conveyance
Maintain sufficient velocities to suspend material
Converging flows should offset
Design Methods Overview
Design Considerations
Stack Effect
Height of the building
Elevator shafts, stairwells, other shafts
Wind effect
Prevailing wind direction
Shape of building and nearby objects
Location of intakes and exhausts
Design Considerations
Inlet and outlet conditions
Fan curves are ideal
Inlet conditions to avoid
Pre-rotation
Turbulent flow
Can not be correct by simply adding to the
required pressure
Results in a new curve
Design Considerations
Inlet and outlet conditions
Design Considerations
Fan system effect
Design Considerations
Fan system effect
Difficult to asses
Approximations exist (ASHRAE Duct Fitting
Database)
Experience
Design Considerations
Design Considerations
Flex Duct
Design Considerations
The contractor wants to use a different type of
elbow, is that OK?
It depends on the location in the system
What type of fitting is the proposed replacement?
What are the actual losses in the system?
Velocity pressure
Loss coefficient
Fittings
Comments
Avoid using extractors
Poor airflow
Noise
Use an elbow for the final branch in a duct
run.
Cushion effect
Boot taps
Best performance for cost
Acoustics
If it is good for airflow it is usually good for
acoustics.
Three components:
Source
Path
Receiver
Acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics
Weighting
Human ear is less sensitive to low and high
frequencies
More sensitive to mid-frequencies
Acoustics
Start with quiet equipment
Locate air-handling equipment in less sensitive
areas
Allow for proper fan outlet conditions
Rectangular length 1.5 x largest dimension
Round length 1.5 x diameter
Acoustics
Use radiused elbows where possible
Larger ductwork reduces velocity and reduces
generated noise
Avoid abrupt changes in layout
Place dampers away from outlets
Flexible connections to equipment
Acoustics
Power splits
Ratio of areas

L1 = 10 log (A1 (A1 + A2))

L2 = 10 log (A2 (A1 + A2))
Units dB, applies across all frequencies, straight
subtraction
Acoustics
Medium-High frequency
Easier to attenuate than low
Lined or double walled duct
Lengthen runs if necessary
Silencers
Acoustics
Silencers
Can be very effective at attenuating sound
Insertion loss
Pressure drops
Generated noise
Elbow
Locate in the wall or as close as possible
Do not locate right off of a fan
Acoustics
Reactive silencers
Low to no pressure drops
Dissipative
No fill use baffles and chambers