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TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORIES

Ben Appel, Mike Babe, Steve Hall, Scott Wallace, Jonathan Pease

BEHAVIORISM

COMPARISON

CONSTRUCTIVISM

NEW TYPES OF LEARNING THEORIES


DISCOVERY LEARNING AUTHENTIC LEARNING HUMANISTIC LEARNING SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM COOPERATIVE LEARNING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING THEORIES

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF USEFUL WEBSITES ON THIS TOPIC

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BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a theory learning that focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior.
The Universal Learning Process CONDITIONING SYNOPSIS OF THE THEORY NOTABLE THEORIST

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

BEHAVIORAL OPERANT CONDITIONING

A natural response to a stimulus

CRITIQUE OF THE THEORY

A reinforced response to a stimulus

CRITIQUES ON BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activities of the mind.

Behaviorism does not explain some learning--such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children--for which there is no reinforcement mechanism.

Reserach has shown that animals adapt their reinforced patterns to new information. For instance, a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements.
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SYNOPSIS OF BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a simple theory which relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective. Behaviorism often is used by teachers, who reward or punish student behaviors.

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NOTABLE THEORIST
IVAN PAVLOV 1849-1936 Known for his work with Classical Conditioning.

B. F. SKINNER 1904-1990

Known for his work with Operant Conditioning.


BACK USEFUL WEBSITES ON THESE THEORIST

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF USEFUL WEBSITES


BEHAVIORISM THEORISTS

http://www.funderstanding.com/behaviorism.cfm IVAN PAVLOV- http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/classica.htm B. F. SKINNER- http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/skinner.htm

CONSTRUCTIVISM

http://www.sedl.org/scimath/compass/v01n03/1.html http://www.sedl.org/scimath/compass/v01n03/2.html http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm http://digitalliteracy.mwg.org/constructivisim.html http://omicron.felk.cvut.cz/~bobr/role/ch35.htm

THEORISTS

John Dewey- http://home.earthlink.net/~dougary/ITEC_800/final_project/dewey.htm John Dewey- http://www.ittheory.com/dewey2.htm Jean Piaget- http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/piaget.htm George Miller- http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/millerIP.htm Jerome Bruner- http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/Bruner.htm Seymour Papert- http://www.fhsu.edu/~ggiebler/WebProj/PapertParents.pdf

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CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Use of past experiences help us to make sense of our experiences. GUIDING PRINCIPLES
1. Learning is the search for meaning. 2. Meaning requires knowledge of wholes and parts. Parts are understood in context of wholes. 3. To teach well we must understand students mental models.

SYNOPSIS OF THE THEORY

4. The purpose of learning is for the individual to construct his or her own meaning.

HOME NOTABLE THEORIST

SYNOPSIS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism is a philosophy which calls for the use of curricula which is customized to the students' prior knowledge. A key element of this learning process is hands-on problem solving. As a teacher using this technique, one should encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. The use of open-ended questions allows for discussion between groups of students. These discussion help students form answers to the given problems.

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NOTABLE THEORIST
John Dewey 1859-1952 Known for rejecting authoritarian methods and believed education should be integrated with life experiences.

Jean Piaget 1896-1980


Theorized cognitive abilities are acquired by assimilation.

George Miller 1920Known for theories of chunking and information processing.

Jerome Bruner 1915Seymour Papert 1928Expert on technologybased learning. A founding father of Constructivist Theory. BACK

USEFUL WEBSITES ON THESE THEORIST

DISCOVERY LEARNING
Mode of teaching that encourages students to ask questions and find their own answers. Students also learn general principles from examples and experience.

it is expected that the student will have to explore examples from them discover the principles or concepts which are to be learned. (Snelbecker)
FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.csd.uwa.edu.au/altmodes/to_delivery/discovery_learning.html

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AUTHENTIC LEARNING
A higher level of thinking when a student must interpret, analyze, or manipulate information, because a question to be answered or problem to be solved cannot be found through previously learned knowledge.

To succeed in the workplace, children need to become independent, critical thinkers. They must know where and how to find information, organize it, evaluate it, and then effectively express their knowledge and ideas. They must work cooperatively in teams. (The Role of Online Communications in Schools: A National Study) BACK
FOR MORE INFO SEE http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/authlrn.htm

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
A curriculum development and delivery system that recognizes the need to develop problem solving skills along with developing and acquiring necessary knowledge and skills. 1. Problems drive the curriculum - the problems do not test skills; they assist in development of skills. 2. The problems are truly ill-structured - there is no single solution, and as new information is gathered, perception of the problem changes, and the solution, changes. 3. Students solve the problems - teachers are coaches and facilitators. 4. Students are only given guidelines- there is no one formula for student approaches to the problem. 5. Authentic, performance based assessment is a seamless part and end of the BACK instruction.
FOR MORE INFO SEE http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/problearn.html

HUMANISTIC LEARNING
Abraham Maslow 1908-1970
Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. He placed emphasis on choice, creativity, values, selfrealization, all distinctively human qualities, and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity.

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FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/maslow.htm

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
Lev Vyotsky 1896-1934
Vygotsky shared many of Piaget's views about child development, but he was more interested in the social aspects of learning. Vygotsky differs from discovery learning, which is also based on Piaget's ideas, in that the teacher and older children play important roles in learning. The teacher is typically active and involved

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FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/vygotsky.htm

COLLABORATIVE LEARNIMNG
Collaborative Learning is a philosophy that implores working together, building together, learning together, changing together, improving together, in order to learn skills and build knowledge.

Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated Sharing one's ideas and responding to others' improves thinking and deepens understanding" (Gerdy, 1998) BACK
FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.city.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/collab.learning/wiersema.htm l

COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. The idea is simple. Class members are organized into small groups after receiving instruction from the teacher. They then work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.

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FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.co-operation.org/pages/cl.html

TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING THEORIES


Historically, what pedagogical methods have been the paradigms for instruction? Behaviorism and Constructivism
How do the methods differ in belief and practice? Behaviorism is based more on teacher instruction and Constructivism gives freedom to the student What have educators theorized and discovered about the processes of teaching and learning? How have educational theorists/practitioners changed the concept of teaching as one size fits all? Every student brings something different to the classroom. Teachers should cater to different learner styles and abilities. How do the newer types of learning theories address the issues of incorporating technology tools into teaching and learning experiences? The newer theories allow more student freedom which is furthered by technology. How are these newer learning theories changing the roles of teachers? Of students? Teachers are becoming more of a guiding force than a driving force in the classroom learning process. BACK

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING
Transformational Learning is an unconventional theory of learning which involves having the student work outside of their comfort zone as far as thinking and learning. This idea depends on the willingness of the teacher to change the learning to fit the needs of the ever changing classroom.

Jack Mezirow Father of the Transformational Learning Theory

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FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/mezirow.htm

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Theory built out of the idea that everyone has his or her own specialties and strengths which come out in different ways. The basis for the theory is that everyone does not learn in the same manner.

The 10 Intelligences
1. Linguistic/Verbal 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Musical

Howard Gardner
Father of Multiple Intelligences Theory

4. Bodily/Kinesthetic
5. Spatial 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalist 9. Spiritual 10. Existential

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FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.konnections.net/lifecircles/gardener.htm

COMPARING THE THEORIES


BEHAVIORISM

CONSTRUCTIVISM

DIRECTED INSTRUCTION OBJECTIVIST TEACHER-CENTERED BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS FOCUS ON THE INDIVIDUAL FOCUS ON SINGLE APPROACH

NON-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNER-CENTERED COGNITIVE OPERATIONS FOCUS ON GROUP WORK HOLISTIC IN APPROACH BACK

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

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