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Scientific Management

(1910-1935)
Frederick Taylor Henry Gannt Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Luther Gulick III Max Weber Henri Fayol

Scientific Management
The

process of approaching various aspects of organizations in a scientific manner using scientific tools such as research, management, and analysis.

Scientific Management Theorists


PURISTS Frederick Taylor Henry Gannt Frank and Lillian Gilbreth TRANSITIONALISTS Luther Gulick Max Weber Henry Fayol

History of the Era


Industrial Age - Migration to cities - Reliance on electricity and gasoline - Changes both on the farm and in factories - Autos, airplanes, movies, and radio became common

History of the Era


1913 Federal Reserve System created WWI begins and Panama Canal opens 1919-1933 Prohibition 1920 - Nineteenth Amendment 1929 - Stock Market Crash

Prior to Scientific Management


Owner, manager, sales, and front office personnel had little direct contact with production activity. A superintendent was responsible for all planning and staff functions. Worked with journeyman mechanics to try to schedule production. No recognized staff functions. Work methods were determined by individual mechanics based on personal experience, preference, and what tools were available for the job. Rule of Thumb

Frederick Taylor

Efficiency Expert in U.S. Steel Industry Invented New Tool Designs and Handling Methods Designed Stop-Watch Task Timing Created Piece-Rate Payment Scheme Developed Industrial Departments

Time Studies and the Piece-Rate System

Studied most efficient worker Used stop-watch timing to measure each production step Eliminated any unnecessary movements Designed standardized instruction cards for employees Employees paid for meeting the established rate of production

Henry Gannt
Worked

with Taylor at Midvale Steel Company Specialized in incentive wage plans Introduced a differential piece rate system Task work with a bonus Permitted workers to improve the production system Introduced a bonus for foremen based on the number of their workers who earned bonus

Gannt Chart Information


Developed to help industrial age managers plan for mass production Utilized to coordinate WWI shipbuilding Visual display used to schedule based on time

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth


- Associates of Fredrick Winslow Taylor, their work was intertwined with his and their motion studies predated Taylors system first published in 1903. - Developed the laws of human motion from which evolved the principles of motion economy

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth


Pioneers in the field of motion studies and provided the foundation for job simplification, meaningful work, and incentive wage plans. Analyzed each motion of work for wasted efforts in an attempt to reduce each task to the smallest amount of expended time and energy. Professed: effective training, effective work methods, improved work environment, positive psychological perspective. Made the connection between standardization and efficiency Believed that time could not be separated from motion; the two were intertwined.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth


Systematically examined how repetitive tasks were performed These repetitive tasks were broken down into Therbligs, which are systems for analyzing the motions involved in performing a task. This consisted of identification of individual motions, as well as moments of delay in the process, designed to find unnecessary or inefficient motions and to utilize or eliminate even split seconds of wasted time. Invented and refined Therbligs roughly between 1908 and 1924. Each Therblig had a mnemonic symbol and standard color for charting

Luther Hasley Gulick III


Believed that public administration could have made more effective if it were practiced according to a set of guidelines. All organizations are characterized by a tension between the need for division and the need for coordination. Work division is the foundation of organization. It is important to recognize that there are limits beyond which labor cannot usefully be divided. Gulick stated, It might be more efficient to have the front half of the cow in the pasture grazing while the rear half is in the barn being milked, but any attempt to divide the cow in this fashion would, for obvious reasons, fail. Gulick believed that, labor divided makes for efficiency, but only if the labor and its outputs are harmonized with the organizations goals

Organization of Work Units - Gulick


By

Purpose the aims of the work unit By Process what the unit actually does By Clientele work with similar materials or clients By Location organized together due to geographic location, regardless of function

Five Factors that Limit Full Coordination - Gulick


Uncertainty concerning the future Lack of knowledge on the part of the leaders Lack of administrative skills on the part of the leaders A general lack of knowledge and skills on the part of the other members of the organization The vast number of variables involved and incompleteness of human knowledge, particularly with regard to man and life

Seven Administrative Procedures Gulick


Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating Reporting Budgeting

Gulicks Definition of Leadership


The

most difficult task of the chief executive is not command, it is leadership, which is the development of the desire and will to work together for a purpose in the minds of those who are associated in any activity. Gulick sees ideas as more potent and more powerful than organizations.

Gilbreths and Gulick Compared


-

GILBRETHS Devoted to Efficiency Analyzed Motion and Movements of Workers Created Therblig System Their studies were part of the manufacturing revolution in the U.S.

GULICK
-

Applied Scientific Method to Management Dean of American Public Administration Division of Labor and Integrated Organization Applied Scientific Approach to Personnel Management
-

Defined work in terms of positions needed to carry out a process, rather than the people doing the work

Max Weber

Weberian Model of Bureaucracy


Division of Labor and Specialization Impersonal Orientation Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Career Orientation

Webers Description of Power and Authority in Organizations


Charismatic Traditional Legal

Criticisms of Weberian Bureaucratic Model


Dysfunctional

Consequences Neglect of the Informal Organization Internal Inconsistencies Gender Bias Oppressive Features Organizational Pathologies

Webers Influence on Educational Organizations


Described

the bureaucratic characteristics used by most educational institutions. Described organizations as social systems that interact and are dependent upon their environments. Provides a starting point for modified structures.

Henri Fayol (1841-1925)


Fayols Five Functions of Management 1. Forecasting and Planning 2. Organization 3. Command 4. Coordinate 5. Control

Fayols 14 Principles for Organizational Design and Effective Administration


1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Specialization/Division of Labor Authority with Corresponding Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of Individual Interest to the General Interest Remuneration of Staff

Centralization 9. Scalar Chain/Line of Authority 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of Tenure 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de Corps

Weber and Fayol Compared


Similarities
-

WEBER Ideal Type Hierarchy of authority Division of Labor Career Orientation Rules and Regulations

FAYOL One Best Way Top Down Management Specialization Stability of Tenure Discipline

Weber and Fayol Compared


Differences
-

WEBER Organization as a Social System dependent on environment Rationality Impersonal Orientation Administrative Efficiency

FAYOL No parallel Personal experience and observation Esprit and Initiative Future Planning

Scientific Managements Impact on Organizations


Defined Administrative Roles Supervision of work rather than people Work specializations Span of control Cost accounting

Homogeneity of Positions Engineering for Efficiency Assembly Line Production Emphasis on Quality Control

Scientific Managements Effect on Schools


Teaching Objectives Vocational Curriculum Design Division of Labor Subjects Departmentalized Improvements by Analysis

Data-driven decisions Standardized assessments

Outcomes for Instruction

Teacher Merit-pay Staff Development Programs

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted


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Scientific Management The most efficient manner to perform a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management

Humanistic Approach Concern for people not the task Participatory decision-making Emphasis on Individual Contributions and Personal Awareness Flexibility

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted


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Scientific Management The most efficient manner to perform a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management

Social Systems Approach Focused on the interaction of the organization and its larger environment Leaders are high-task oriented (work structure) and highrelationships oriented (concern for others) Organizations are a set of interrelated elements functioning as a whole

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted


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Scientific Management The most efficient way to perform a task is established and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management

Situational Leadership No one style is appropriate for all situations Increased involvement in decision making Collaborative Planning Flexible Change Strategies Unique Organizational Personality must be accounted for in structure, leadership, and decision-making

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted


-

Scientific Management The most efficient manner to complete a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management

Futuristic Approach Focus on an improved, decentralized system of management Learning organizations able to predict for and respond to a changing environment Organizational Change Models that help organizations prepare for future challenges