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By CHAITANYA RAJ GOYAL

CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION HISTORY AIRPORT STATISTICS INTERESTING FACTS STUDY OF MASTER PLAN ELEMENTS PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS

INTRODUCTION

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, formerly Sahar International Airport, is the primary airport in Mumbai, India, and is South Asia's 2nd biggest & busiest airport in term of passenger traffic. Currently 350 flights take off daily from domestic and 300 from international terminal.

DETAILS
AIRPORT TYPE OWNER OPERATOR SERVES LOCATION ELEVATION COORDINATES WEBSITE PUBLIC AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA & GVK Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL) MUMBAI Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 37 ft / 11 m 190519N 0725205E www.csia.in

HISTORY

1st Terminal Building built in 1948 near Santa Cruz Suburban & thus called SANTA CRUZ AIRPORT(Domestic & International). New International Terminal building built in 1981 near Sahar suburban & thus known as SAHAR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT.(Dedicated) Santa Cruz Domestic & Sahar International merged as Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in 2005.

AIRPORT STATISTICS
Destinations : 113 Countries Served : 43 Continents Served : 5 Serves 50 international airlines Operational area (Govt. fig.) 1,450 acres (5.9 km2) GVK figure: 936 acres (3.79 km2) Passenger Traffic (09-10): 25.6 million Cargo (09-10): 551,189 tonnes

INTERESTING FACTS

2nd Biggest airport in South Asia. Busiest airport in South Asia in cargo volumes. Fourth Best Airport in the World, by the Airport International Council, for aerobridges, fancy food courts, spas, and salons. 2nd Busiest airport in the Indian Sub-continent in terms of passengers traffic. The Mumbai-Delhi route is the seventh-busiest domestic route in the world

First Airport in India to Implement SelfService Kiosks and CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) check-in systems.

Best Airport in India by the Airport International Council. Aeronautical Excellence Airport of the Year 2008 from Frost & Sullivan.

STUDY OF THE MASTER PLAN

RUNWAY 2 TERMINAL 2

TERMINAL 1

RUNWAY 1

MASTER PLAN FOR OVERALL DEVELOPMENT


Mumbai

International Airport Limited (MIAL), a consortium of GVK Industries Ltd. (GVK) and Airports Company South Africa (ACSA), was appointed to carry out the modernization of Mumbai Airport in February 2006.

MIAL unveiled the master plan

for CSIA, which has been designed to expand and upgrade the infrastructure to cater for 40 million passengers per year and one million tonnes of cargo per year by 2013.

TERMINAL BUILDINGS

The airport consists of 3 main terminals: Terminal 1 (Santa Cruz) for domestic flights Terminal 2 (Sahar) for international flights. Cargo Terminal.

Terminal 1 is further subdivided in 3 parts: 1A Opened in April 1992 1B - 1st terminal building (renovated 1998) 1C - April 2010 (Part of the new plan)

DOMESTIC TERMINAL T1 (1A/1B/1C)

DOMESTIC TERMINAL T1 (1A/1B/1C) 1C

1C

was completed in 2010 as a part of the new MIAL Plan. is used for boarding only and can be reached from both 1A and 1B after the security check. Check-in and security are all performed only in 1A and 1B.

1C

1A

&1B have received major facelifts in past 2 years.

1A Refurbished

1B NEW ARRIVALS Help Desk at 1B

DOMESTIC ARRIVALS T1-A

Land Scaping at 1B

Gates at 1C Security Check at 1B

Construction of T1C

Terminal 1C is an enormous steel structure which was designed using TEKLA 3D software.

TERMINAL 1C

Terminal 2 is further subdivided in 2 parts:


2A 1st terminal building (1981) was demolished in 2009 to pave the way for the new integrated terminals construction.(part of new plan) 2B Built in 1986 and renovated in 2009.

2C - Opened in April 1999 (Dedicated to Air India)

TERMINAL2 (INTERNATIONAL)

TERMINAL2 A,B,C (INTERNATIONAL)

Demolished 2A

The

separate international and domestic terminals will be merged into one terminal building at the current international building and the current domestic terminal will be converted to a dedicated cargo terminal.
Soon 2B & 2C WILL BE DEMOLISHED TO PAVE WAY FOR THE REST OF THE INTEGRATED TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION (expected completion 2013).

Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designed the new international terminal.

A Few more photos of the new design from their site..

NEW INTEGRATED TERMINAL

Demolition of T-2A
Use of Dust Control Technology was made during this demolition so as to avoid the dust clouds and settlement in adjoining Apron and T-2B. The demolition crusher machine a Volvo EC460 LC fastest heavy earthmover in the world also had an attached water sprinkler to keep a check on rising dust levels during the demolition work. The high capacity machine has a maximum height of 27 meters or 90 feet.

4-5 Months were taken for complete controlled demolition of T2A

CONTRUCTION OF NEW INTEGRATED TERMINAL

A View of the entire site


L&T ECCD WON THE CONTRACT FOR THE NEW

TERMINAL.

BLOCK A

BLOCK B

BLOCK C

BLOCK D

BLOCK E

CONSTRUCTION OF AEROBRIDGES AT SITE D

BASIC FIGURE OF A PASSENGER BOARDING BRIDGE:

CARGO TERMINAL

AIRCRAFTS PARKED AT CARGO APRON AT C.S.A.

The cargo capacity of the airport will be increased from current 0.5 million tonnes to 1 million tonnes by 2013.

THE NEW PLAN ALSO PROPOSES THE FOLLOWING ADVANCEMENTS:

RUNWAYS & A.T.C.T.

CSAM has two intersecting runways designated 09/27 and 14/32.

ILS CAT-I is available on all ends & ILS-CAT-II is available only on 27 end of runway.
: Airport Traffic Control Tower

A.T.C.T.

RUNWAY 14/32

ATC(Airport Traffic Control tower)

RUNWAY 09/27

REPAIR OF RUNWAY 09/27:

The plan involves leveling the whole runway and making it wider from the current 45 m to 60 m, so that mega jumbos like A 380s can land and take off in future. Thus, the runway will remain closed for 6 hours daily from 12 noon to 6pm till June 2011.(started Nov. 2010)

RUNWAY 14/32

During these hours, the 14/32 runway will be in full use (other than its simultaneous use that is made with main runway during morning & evening 3 hours each).

The problems with utilizing 14/32 are: Mumbai's controversial new control tower erected in 1996 is 73 m (236 ft) tall & exceeds transitional obstacle limitation by over 26 m for instrument approaches, and by 33 m for visuals.

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) a body comprising all major airlines of the world has written to the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) that if safe operations are to ensured, then the height of this tower has to be reduced by 26 m.
Also, few major airlines & some pilots have refused to use this runway due to safety concerns.

Relocation of the ATC:

The MIAL new master plan relocates the ATC to a new location i.e. in midst of the Santa Cruz terminal buildings cluster.(current domestic & to be dedicated cargo terminal)

HBS architects (Hongkong) have designed new ATC & it'll be 98.4m tall.

Won the 'Autodesk Hong Kong Building Information Modeling (BIM) Award-2009'

MIAL has also incorporated a parallel runway as part of the master plan but there are some obstructions to this part of the land which includes land acquisition and rehabilitation of slums as well as relocation of a number of airport facilities.
Encroached land is 262 acres against the government estimate of 147 acres.

Approaches to a parallel runway:

1: Constructing a runway parallel to the existing 09/27 runway. 2: Constructing a runway parallel to the existing 14/32 runway.

Problems with approach 1:

With a length of 12,500 ft (3,800 m), this new parallel runway could easily accommodate the new-generation aircraft, and also be sufficiently distant (more than 800 feet (240 m) apart) from main runway, but it would necessitate the relocation of Air-India's hangars and maintenance facilities.

Problems with approach 2:

It would lie between the international terminal to the north and the Kalina campus university grounds.

The airport's flight kitchens and the Sahar police station would have to be moved and the area to which they could be relocated is currently occupied by thousands of slumdwellers.

Currently 85,000 slum dwellers reside on the encroached land of 262 acres.
Implementation of a model Slum Rehabilitation scheme is in action to move these 85,000 slum dwellers.

TAXIWAYS
11

New Rapid Exit Taxiways & 4 New Parallel Taxiways are to come up for quick aircraft taxing which saves time as well as runway occupancy.
is how the new CSA will look after all the changes have been completed.(next slide)

This

A.I. Boeing 747 Hangar at CSA

96.6m structural steel cantilever hangar houses Boeing 747 Jumbos. Highest point of the roof is 32.3m above ground to accommodate the aircrafts tail and overhead equipment.
Cantilever structure is anchored to resist movt. by specially coated corrosion-proof pre-stressed anchors comprising 8 cables of 24mm dia.

Airbus A-300 Hanger at CSA

The Airbus A300 hangar, an extension of the hangar built in 1970, consists of two 62m cantilevered spans stayed by pre-stressed concrete ties.
The RCC folded plate structure contains 8 folds in the transverse direction spaced at 7.6m The height of the opening is designed for accommodating the tail of the Airbus A300 which is 16.94m

Indian Airlines Hanger at CSA

An internationally acclaimed structure with balanced cantilever roofs of thin prestressed concrete folded plates.
Extremely light with an average concrete thickness of just 200mm. 2 cantilevered spans each 62.3m, continuous with a central span of 27.4m Overall length between cantilever tips is 152m, and height 15.9m.

CONTRACTS

In 2007, Larsen & Toubro Limited, were awarded a contract by MIAL to upgrade the airport as part of the CSIA Expansion and Renovation Program.

The existing international terminal and the associated aprons are being replaced. The project consists of the replacement of approximately 540,000 sq.meters of existing rigid pavements with over 950,000 sq.meters of new pavement.
The aprons will be in use throughout the 3 year construction period, and are currently operating near saturation traffic levels.

The reconstructed aprons have been designed to ICAO standards utilizing FAARFIELD software for pavement design.
Geometric and pavement designs were designed in accordance with ICAO Annex 14 and ICAO Aerodrome Design Manual Parts 1, 2 and 3.

FAA Advisory Circular 150/5320-6E was used as a guide for pavement designs and detailing.

SUBBASE DETAILS:

The subbase for the new concrete pavements is a mixture of rubblized concrete, existing subbase and new subbase.
Utilizing rubblised concrete as a subbase for new rigid pavements is a highlight of the project.

PAVEMENT TYPES

The new apron area is located over varying terrain including existing flexible & rigid pavements.
All the existing aircraft parking stands are rigid pavements. Apron taxi lanes are a mix of flexible and rigid pavements.

GEOTECHNICAL STUDIES:

Extensive geotechnical investigations were undertaken to establish the structure of all existing pavements and to determine the subgrade classification and strength across the entire apron. A limited number of plate load tests and laboratory CBR tests were conducted.

ROAD CONNECTIVITY TO CSA:

It is well connected to the main city through the direct link to the ANDHERI-KURLA road.
The construction of a dedicated 6 lane road connected to the western express highway is on.

The Mithi River Problem:

The first and main runway was built across the Mithi river. It crossed the river on a bridge with a culvert underneath to allow the water to flow. But due to monsoon rains in Mumbai that continue 24/7 for 2 months, the airport land including the runway frequently gets waterlogged..
A CULVERT

MITHI RIVER FLOWING UNDER THE RUNWAY 09/27

Solution to the problem:

The MMRDA appointed IIT(Mumbai) & Jacob Consultancy to find a suitable solution to the problem. The agency claimed to have finished most of the Mithi deepening and widening in various upstrem & downstream sections of the river. The 600-metre stretch of the river running below the airport will be widened to 47 m from the existing width of 27 m. Heavy Earthmoving equipments are being used for the widening purpose.

The Master Plan of MIAL also includes the following features

Implementation of a model Slum Rehabilitation scheme to move 85,000 slum dwellers.


Environmental Up gradation through use of unique, integrated Architectural & Urban Design image, large green areas, indoor & outdoor Landscaped Areas, Rainwater Harvesting and Energy Conservation. Best in class technology for Airport Operations.

THANK YOU!!!