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Phosphorescence

Presented by : prathamesh asinkar sudheer kurup ashish nag


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Contents
1. Introduction to Phosphorescence 2. Jablonski Diagram 3. Factors affecting Phosphorescence 4. Phosphorimeter 5. Construction

6. Working
7. Applications 8. Bibliography

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Phosphorescence
Phosphorescence is the emission of light over seconds, minutes ,hours or even days after the cause responsible for the excitation of the molecules is removed.

Phosphorescence is related to fluorescence in emitting a photon, however, a phosphorescent material does not immediately re-emit the radiation it absorbs. It is the reason behind GLOW-IN-THE-DARK materials.

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JABLONSKI DIAGRAM S2
S1
Energy
Absorption Fluorescence

T1
Inter system crossing Phosphorescence

Ground State

S0
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Inter System Crossing


When a singlet state non - radiatively transitions to a triplet state, or conversely a triplet transitions to a singlet, that process is known as intersystem crossing. In essence, the spin of the excited electron is reversed. The probability of this process occurring is more favorable when the vibrational levels of the two excited states overlap, since little or no energy must be gained or lost in the transition..
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Molecular potential energy, V

S* T

ISC Absorption

Phosphorescence

Internuclear separation, R
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Inter System Crossing

S3 S2 Energy

S1
T1
V5 V4 V3 V2 V1

V4 V3 V2
V1 V0

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Factors affecting phosphorescence?


Temperature
Higher temperatures result in larger collisional deactivation due to increased movement and velocity of molecules.

pH

The pH of the solution is a very important factor that influences luminescence.

Dissolved oxygen

Phosphorescence is completely eliminated and quenched in the presence of dissolved oxygen.

Solvent Choice of solvents affect the phosphorescence to a great extent. Eg: Atoms containing heavier atoms, reduce fluorescence and increase phosphorescence.

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Phosphorimeter
It is a device which is used to measure and identify compounds exhibiting phosphorescence. It is able to distinguish between the two types of luminescences.

Sample Preparation
The solvent must form a rigid solid at 77K. Solvent must be pure so that there is nil background phosphorescence. Ethanol and EPA (5:5:2 mixture of diethyl ether, isopentane and ethanol) are generally used as solvents.

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Sample Asssembly

Sample tube

Liquid Nitrogen

Silvered

Io Sample assembly consists of: A quartz sample tube. liquid nitrogen . Quartz Dewar Vessel.

Unsilvered

this entire assembly is then placed in sample holder called as phosphoroscope. 4/14/2013

Sample tube
Dewar flask Liquid Nitrogen Phosphorescence Can

Emission Shutter
Excitation Shutter To emission monochromator

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Construction of a phosphorimeter

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Secondary Filter

Lens

Primary Filter

Photo multiplier tube

Xenon lamp

Readout

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Working of a phosphorimeter

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Applications of phosphorescence
Determination of drugs present in blood and urine sample

Determination of water and air borne diseases.


Analysis of pesticides. Used for entertainment purposes. Used in lamps and TV tubes. Used in forensic science.

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Bibliography
1. Physical chemistry ( 9th edition ) by Peter Atkins, Pg. 505-506. 2. Principles of Physical Chemistry by Puri , Sharma and Pathatnia, Pg. 1044-1046. 3. An introduction to Physical Chemistry , New Age International Publishers, Ishwar Das , Archana Sharma, Pg. 157-159. 4. Photoluminiscence of Solutions , Elsevier Publications, Pg. 1-50. 5. www.slideshare.net/HomeAyesha/phosphorimetry 6. www.chemchel.com/applications/applications.html 7. Lott P., Journal Of Chemical Education, Vol. 5, no. 6, June 1974. 8. Lott P., Journal Of Chemical Education, Vol. 5, no. 7, July 1974.

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Thank You!
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