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Has parts that perform special functions.

Has normal range of vision is from 25 cm

to infinity but may suffer from diseases like MYOPIA, HYPEROPIA and ASTIGMATISM. Has limitations and is compensated by optical instruments like CAMERA, MICROSCOPE and TELESCOPE.


1. PUPIL regulates the amount of light entering

the eye. An opening through which the light enters the inner portion of the eye.

2. IRIS the colored circle of the eye, it may

be brown, black, blue or gray depending on the race. Its main task is to regulate the size of the pupil through contraction and relaxation

IRIDOLOGY study of the iris of the eye

3. CORNEA the outer thin transparent membrane of the eyeball. Serves to protect the eye and refract most of the incident rays. Tagged as window of the eye

4. SCLERA the white background of the eye.

It provides structure, protection and

strength of the eye.

5. CRYSTALLINE LENS a convex structure found at the back of the pupil. ACCOMODATION the ability of lens to focus objects at different distances by changing its shape.

**If you want to relax your tired eyes, look at a distant object

6. CILIARY MUSCLES attached to the crystalline lens and responsible for changing the shape of the lens when focusing objects at different distances.

7. RETINA the inner surface of the eye. For normal vision, the image is formed

exactly at the retina.

FOVEA important part of retina. This is the region of most distinct vision. BLIND SPOT the point in the retina where the optic nerves exit. OPTIC NERVES carries images from the retina to the brain

8. AQUEOUS AND VITROUS HUMOR both belong to the refractive system of the eye.

How We See
When we look at an object, the light striking the
object enters the eye through the cornea. After passing the cornea, a portion of this light passes through the pupil and goes to the crystalline lens. Because of being convex, the crystalline lens focuses this light to a single point and cast an image on the retina. The image formed is REAL, INVERTED and SMALLER than the object. The image is relayed to the brain by the optic nerve and the brain the size of the object.

Clarity of vision or sharpness of vision.
20/20 vision and 6/6 vision for Britain 20 ft or 6 m (numerator) standard testing

distance 20 ft or 6 m (denominator) represents the distance at which a person with normal vision is able to see clearly an object seen by another at 20 ft or 6 m.

Near point of the eye

Young adults = 25 cm Children = 10 cm Old = 50 cm

Far point of the eye is AT INFINITY

Common Vision Problems:

MYOPIA medical term for nearsightedness People with this eye problem can see close objects clearly but the distant ones are blurred HYPEROPIA medical term for farsightedness People with this eye defect can see distant objects but cannot focus clearly on nearby objects

PRESBYOPIA sometimes called the aging

eyes or old eyes

The crystalline lens hardens and the ciliary

muscles become less flexible.

ASTIGMATISM a person suffering this eye

defect cannot focus simultaneously on horizontal and vertical lines.

The cornea has unequal curvature

Other Optical Instruments

o Mans answer to the inability to produce

permanent record of the image formed o It is also known as mechanical eye because it is very similar to the eye in terms of essential structures and functions

Magnifier and Compound Microscope

o It enables us to move the object closer

to the eye without requiring the latter to focus closer than 25 cm. Telescope o Device that enables us to see distant objects.