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Vacuum Sensors

Sensors, Instrumentation, and Measurements in Electronic Applications EE 87022

Hubert George

04/19/07

Vacuum Sensors
Tools used to characterize gases in vacuum systems Measurement Pressure Sensors/Gauges

Direct reading Indirect reading

Force directly (Mechanical gauge)

Gas property

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Classification

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John F. OHanlon

04/19/07

Pressure ranges

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John F. OHanlon

04/19/07

Direct gauges Mechanical gauge Capacitance manometer


Convert membrane position, capacitance change into a pressure reading.
Membrane sensitivity + electronics

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John F. OHanlon

04/19/07

Indirect gauge Measure pressure-dependent property of gas


Thermal conductivity gauges: Pirani and Thermocouple
Ionization gauges: Hot cathode and Cold cathode Radioactive gauges: Alphatron
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Thermal conductivity gauges: Pirani and Thermocouple


Pirani

p: Heat loss : T. wire: R. wire

Thermocouple p: Heat loss : T. measured wire: V

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John F. OHanlon

04/19/07

Ionization gauges: Hot cathode Bayard-Alpert


Tungsten or Iridium

Heat filament: emit e e- hit gas and ionize gas Grid invisible to e Ions accelerated to collector

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John F. OHanlon

04/19/07

Ionization gauges: Hot cathode Bayard-Alpert


X ray limit
X rays are produced when e- impact the grid When x rays strike collector they cause eto be ejected from collector This generated current adds to ion current Pressures range 10-10 to 10-11 Torr. : Gauge design

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Ionization gauges: X rays limit


X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation and have a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers (301015Hz to 301018Hz).
Wikipedia

X-ray radiation is artificially generated in a laboratory (W.C. Roentgen) and several elements that naturally emit radiation when the nucleus of the atoms disintegrate or decay.
X-rays are produced in high voltage electron tubes. To generate x-rays, we must have three things. We need to have a source of electrons, a means of accelerating the electrons at high speeds, and a target material to receive the impact of the electrons and interact with them. X-rays are generated when free electrons give up some of their energy when they interact with the orbital electrons or nucleus of an atom.
NDT Resource Center

04/19/07

Ionization gauges: Cold cathode Penning


High voltage ionized gas (plasma): pressure defined by current between cathode and anode
e- emanating from cathode are caused to spiral as they move across magnetic field to the anode ( path travel and efficiency)

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Ionization gauges: Hot cathode and Cold cathode Cold Cathode


No x ray errors Lower power (No heat supply for emission) No filament outgases or reacts with process More durable More expensive Slow start at low pressure

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Radioactive gauges: Alphatron


In a ionization gauge, the temperature at which filament or cathode operates in order to provide e-: Oxidise in prescence of Oxigen Analize gases may dissociated Chemical reaction of cathode

Install a radioactive source!!!


Industrial Instrumention, K Krishnaswamy

So, particles given by radioactive material can ionize gas molecules. Small Radium source serves as a emitter Range 10-3 to 103 Torr: Could be used for low vacuum and atmospheric pressure.

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Radioactive gauges: Alphatron

Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design, Yeshvant V. Deshmukh

04/19/07

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Thanks.

Any Question?

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Vacuum:
Remove particles from environment and sample surface Insulation Remove reactive molecules Decrease collision between particles in the process

Gas Flow:
Viscous Flow:
Turbulent Laminar viscous

Molecular Flow: Random motion of gas particles

Vacuum Pumps

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