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UNIT-IV BY: Monica Kapuria

Also known as labour-management relations or labour

relations.
Defined as a relationship between management &

employees or among employees & their organizations, that characterize and grow out of employment

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Involve attempt to have workable solutions between : conflicting objectives and values, incentive and economic security, discipline and industrial democracy, authority and freedom

bargaining and cooperation

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IR do not emerge in vacuum, they are born out of

employment relationship. IR are characterized by both conflict and cooperation. IR also includes study of vital environmental issues like technology, socio-economic factors, political environment, nations labour policy, attitude of trade unions, workers and employers. Study conditions conducive to the labour, management cooperation as well as practices and procedures to elicit desired cooperation from both the parties ( labour management). Also studies law, regulations, agreements, awards of courts, customs traditions as well as policy framework laid by government.

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Fundamental objective is to maintain sound relationship between employer and employees. Beside this : To enhance the economic status of the worker. To regulate the production by minimizing industrial conflicts through state control. To socialize industries by making the government as an employer. To provide and opportunity to the workers to have a say in the management and decision making.

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To improve workers strength with a view to solve their

problems through mutual negotiations & consultations with the management. To encourage & develop trade unions in order to improve the workers collective strength. To avoid industrial conflict and their consequences To extend and maintain industrial democracy.

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Industrial life creates a series of social relationship which regulate the relation and working of a wide variety of people either directly, indirectly or both. The IR are ,therefore, part & parcel of industrial life and thus they include : Labour relations ( relations between union & management also known as labour management relations) Employer-employee relations ( relations between management & employees) Group relation (relations between various groups of workmen) Community or public relations (relations between industry and society)
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The main aspects of IR are: Development of healthy labour management relations.

- Existence of strong, well organized trade unions. - Spirit of Collective bargaining. - Welfare work Maintenance of industrial peace - Machinery should be set up for the prevention & settlement of industrial disputes. - The government should have the power to refer disputes to adjudication. - The government enjoys the power to maintain the status quo. - The provisions of the bipartite and tripartite forums for settlement of industrial disputes.
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Development of industrial democracy - Establishment of the Shop Councils and Joint

Management Councils at the floor and plant level. - Recognition of Human Rights in Industry. - Increase in Labour productivity. - The availability of proper work environment

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Unitary approach

Approaches

Pluralistic approach

Marxist approach

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Unitary approach: IR is grounded in mutual cooperation, individual treatment, teamwork and shared goals. Work place conflict is seen as a temporary aberration, resulting from poor management Emphasize on reactive IR strategy. Criticized as a tool for seducing employees away from unionism & socialism

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Pluralistic approach: Organizations as coalitions of competing interests, where managements role is to mediate among the different interests groups. Trade unions as legitimate representatives of employee interests. Stability in IR as the product of concessions & compromises between management & unions. Industrial conflict is inevitable & it needs to be contained within the social mechanism of collective bargaining, conciliation & arbitration.

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Marxist approach: Regard conflict as inevitable but arises as a product of the capitalist society. Conflict arises because of the division within society between those who own or manage the means of production and those who have only their labour to offer. Trade unions seen as weapon to bring about revolutionary social change. For Marxists all strikes are political.

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Institutional factors
State policy, labour laws, voluntary codes, collective bargaining agreements, labour unions, employers organizations.

Economic factors
Economic organization, type of ownership, nature & composition of work force, source of labour supply, disparity of wages, level of unemployment.
Social

factors

Social groups, creed, values, status, norms

Technological factors
Work methods, technology, R&D activities
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Psychological factors
Owners attitude, perception of work force, workers attitude towards work, motivation, morale, interest, alienation, dissatisfaction, boredom

Political factors
Political institutions, system of government, political philosophy, government attitude, ruling elite & opposition towards labour problems

Enterprise related factors


Style of management prevailing, philosophy and value system, organizational climate, organizational health, extent of competition, adaptability to change and HRM policies.

Global factors.
International relations, global conflicts, dominant economic political ideologies, global cultural milieu, economic & trading policies, international agreements

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Top management support

Developing sound HRM and IR policies


Development of effective HRM & IR practices Provision of adequate supervisory training

Follow up results.

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Employees

Employers

Employees Associations

EmployerEmployee relations

Employer Associations

Government

Courts & tribunals

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Established on April 19,1919 by Versailles Peace Conference

as an autonomous body associated with the League of Nations. Was born as a result of the peace conference at the end of World War I at Versailles. India became member in 1919. It is a new social institution trying to make the world conscious that world peace may be affected by unjust conditions of its working population. Deals with international labour problems. Its tripartite body consist of representation of employers, labour & government.
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Thus , ILO has been attempting to promote world-wide respect for

the freedom and dignity of the working men and to create conditions in which that freedom and dignity can be more fully and effectively enjoyed

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The objectives of ILO are enumerated in the preamble to its constitution and in the Declaration of Philadelphia.

Full employment and the raising of standards of living. The employment of workers in the occupation in which they can have the satisfaction of giving the fullest measure of their skills. Facilities for training and the transfer of labour including migration for employment and settlement. Policies in regard to wages and earning bonus and other conditions of work calculated to ensure a just share of the fruits of progress to all and a minimum living wage to all employed and in need of protection.
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Adequate protection for the life and health of workers

in all occupation. Provisions for child welfare and maternity protection. The provision fro adequate nutrition, housing, and facilities for recreation and culture. The assurance of educational and vocational opportunity. The effective recognition for the right of collective bargaining, the cooperation of management and labour in continuous improvement of productive efficiency and the collaboration of workers and employers in social and economic measures.
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International labour conference


1) Examines social

Governing body

International labour office


Research Investigation technical corporation publications

Representatives of Problems The:2) Adopts conventions a) Government For ratification by gov. b) Employers c) Workers in the 3) It is the electoral College of that conference 2:1 ratio
That elects the governing Body.

International centre for adv tech & vocational training


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International Institute of Labour studies


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Creation of International standards of Labour

Employment promotion
Collection & distribution of information & publication Research & studies

Training
Improvement of working conditions & working

environment Development of social institutions.

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