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Understanding Cross culture

Submitted byAyushi Jain(B-15) Disha Arora(B-39) Shaifali Jain(B-54)

INDIA
LOCATION: Asia GOVERNMENT: Federal Republic OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; There are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit. Also English enjoys associate status MAJOR RELIGION(S): Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%. MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%.

Greetings
Man greeting Man and women greeting women- Light handshakes are common after the initial "Namaste". Sometimes the Namaste alone will suffice. Greetings between Men & Women - In formal and business situations it is usually best to let the women initiate contact, if at all. Many Indian women will avoid contact with men in public situations. The "Namaste" is the most common form of greeting. Mostly all meetings generally begin with palms pressed together at around chest level and saying, Namaste or Namaskar (which is more formal). People usually nod or bow slightly as well. When greeting an elder, there is also a touching of the feet of the elder, with the right hand, then touching your chest. After this, is the palms pressed together.

Communication styleIndians tend to favor an indirect style of communication over direct. Personal spaceThe comfortable amount of personal space during conversations in India varies with different sub-cultures. In general Indians tend to stand about 3 or 3 feet apart. Men and women hardly ever display any form of physical affection in public. Eye contactSustained eye contact is not generally the norm, especially a woman looking at a man. If doing business, its not uncommon to keep eye contact, but it may seem odd to hold it intently for a while. The best option is to look away or even down once in a while. When communicating with elders it is common to use indirect eye contact.

Value of time There is a well-accepted joke among Indians about IST (Indian Standard Time). Its best to expect at least an hour delay (although you should be punctual within about 15 minutes) Time is viewed as eternal. Indians usually have a chalta hain or a relaxed attitude. It is not usually considered rude to be late in social situations.

Gestures It is common to remove one's shoes at places of worship, when visiting people's homes, and even in certain shops and businesses. Pointing with one finger is common here. One usually always eats with the right hand.

Dress Quite conservative for both men and women. For men: conservative, dark colored suits. Wear shoes that are easy to slip on and off if possible. For women: conservative business suits or dresses and blouses are appropriate. Usually traditional dress like the salwar kameez or sari is acceptable.

Titles and business cards Titles are very important. People like to address others directly by using their professional title or Mr., Mrs., or Miss, followed by the surname. Business cards are usually handed out after the initial handshake and greeting. Always present and receive business cards with your right hand.

Gift givingIt is not necessary to bring a gift to a first meeting, although it will be accepted graciously. Wrapping presents in green, yellow and/or red is the way to go. Avoid black and white. Safe gifts include chocolates or flowers (no frangipani or white flowers). Gifts are not opened in the presence of the giver. Wait until giver leaves if its wrapped. If you give money to an Indian as a gift make sure its an odd number Rs-11/- instead of Rs-10/-. Usually add a single digit.

JAPAN
LOCATION: Asia GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Japanese is the official language and spoken throughout the country. MAJOR RELIGION(S): 84% Shinto/Buddhist, other 16 includes Christianity, Islam, and other sects. MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS: 99% Japanese, 1% others, including ethnic Korean, Chinese, Brazilian and Filipino.

Greetings Man greeting Man and Woman greeting Woman- Japanese men bow to one another when greeting and departing. The depth and length of the bow will fluctuate depending on seniority and status. For foreigners a very gentle handshake and a small bow will do. Man greeting Woman- At a first meeting a bow will do. In business settings a light handshake is common Communication Style An indirect style of communication is preferred over a direct style. Its best to imply what you are saying then actually saying it.

Personal Space and Touching The Japanese prefer standing at arms lengths from one another. Two and half to three feet is normal. When meeting strangers this distance is farther. There is almost no touching between men and men, women and women, and men and women while conversing. Eye Contact Japanese tend to favor indirect eye contact over direct. They may view direct eye contact as intimidating and threatening. Japanese usually use indirect eye contact when speaking with their elders or superiors as a sign of respect and deference.

Value of Time Japanese place a great deal of emphasis on adhering to schedules and deadlines. They value and expect punctuality. The bus, train, and plane schedules are almost always on time and it is the norm to show up to a social function at the scheduled time. Gestures Waving your hand back and forth in front of your face means "I don't know" or "no". You should take your shoes off when entering a Japanese home, many restaurants, and most hotel rooms. The OK sign (index finger touching thumb with 3 other fingers extended) is a gesture used to signify money or coins.

Dress is quite formal for both men and women. For men: conservative, dark colored suits with white shirts and conservative ties. Wear shoes that are easy to slip on and off if possible. For women: conservative business suits or dresses and blouses are appropriate. Avoid tight fitting and sleeveless attire. Jeans and less casual attire are not recommended. Gift Giving Gifts are not usually exchanged at a first business meeting. If invited to a Japanese house, it is appropriate to bring flowers (avoid white), cakes, chocolates, or expensive fruit like melons. Gifts should always be nicely wrapped and carried in a bag before being given. Gifts are not to be opened when they are received. It is best to do this in private.

Titles and Business cards Titles are very important and it is best to address people directly by using their professional title or Mr., Mrs., or Miss, followed by the surname. Japanese names begin with a family name followed by a given name. It is advisable to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese and be sure to present your business card with two hands with the Japanese side facing the recipient. Look at business cards you receive them (with two hands) with interest by examining them carefully.

UNITED STATES
LOCATION: North America & The Caribbean GOVERNMENT: Constitution-based federal republic. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: English , Spanish , other IndoEuropean , Asian and Pacific island , other , Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii. MAJOR RELIGION(S): Protestant , Roman Catholic , Mormon , Jewish , Muslim , other . MAJOR ETHNICGROUPS: White 81.7%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%.

Greetings
Man greeting Man - Men shake hands when greeting one another and maintain direct eye contact. A relatively firm handshake is the way to go. Light hugs are common between good friends and family. Woman greeting Woman-At a first meeting, a light handshake will suffice. Light hugs are common between good friends and family. Man greeting Woman- At a first meeting a regular handshake will do. Light hugs are common between good friends . Note: When Americans say "Hi, how are you?", they are only expecting a "Fine," or a "Fine, thank you" or a "Good" in response. It is not usually an invitation to a lengthy conversation.

Personal space and touching


Americans value their personal space and tend comfortable with 2-3 feet of personal space conversations. For most Americans there is little to no touching conversations. This may be different between good and family. to be during

during friends

Eye contact
Americans value direct eye contact during conversations. It is viewed as a sign of respect and interest in what the person speaking is saying. Staring is considered rude and to be avoided. Especially in the larger cities.

Value of time
Americans value punctuality and expect things to be on time. This includes appointments, services, and deliveries. It is best to show up exactly on time for appointments and social functions. Time is money. This tends to be followed more in urban vs. rural environments.

Gestures
The OK sign and "thumbs up" sign mean good or acceptable and are commonly used throughout the country. Whistling at performance events is a sign of appreciation. Raising the middle finger is seen as highly offensive. Avoid using it, even when pointing to objects or scratching your face.

Dress
People in upper management tend to dress formally at all times. For Men: For a first meeting, a a relatively conservative business suit is a good idea. Blue, gray, or black with a white or blue shirt and matching tie. Many companies allow business casual dress, which is usually nice pants and a collared shirt with or without a jacket. For Women: Dresses, pantsuits, or business suits are a good idea for a first meeting. Limited accessories are fine and it is best to avoid overly revealing clothing. Jeans and more casual attire are common in some industries.

Gift Giving
It is not common to bring gifts to an initial business meeting, although they will be welcome. Avoid anything to expensive as it may be be seen as a potential bribe. If you are invited to an American home, good gifts to bring include, a bottle of wine, flowers, or chocolates.

Titles and Business Cards


Most Americans will want to interact on a first name basis as quickly as possible. It's best to begin addressing people using, Mr. Mrs,. or Miss, and wait for them to invite you to call them by their first name. There is no specific protocol surrounding the giving and receiving of business cards. Many Americans may fold or write on a card they are given. This should not be taken as a sign of disrespect.

ENGLAND
LOCATION : Europe GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy OFFICIAL LANGUAGE : English MAJOR RELIGION(S) : Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none 23.1%. MAJOR ETHNICGROUPS : White (of which English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%) 92.1%, black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%.

Greetings
Man greeting Man - Men shake hands when greeting one another and usually throw in a "How do you do." Handshakes are usually on the lighter side and don't linger that much. Woman greeting Woman- At a first meeting, women generally shake hands. Man greeting Woman- At a first meeting a regular handshake will do. Women tend to extend their hand first.

Eye Contact
Direct eye contact is generally maintained during conversations, but not to the point of staring. Looking away when an elder is speaking is usually viewed as disrespectful.

Personal Space
The English tend to keep about an 2-3 feet between them while speaking. Touching is usually kept to a minimum. Family members are more relaxed and familiar with each other, so touching of the arms, elbows, or hands is acceptable. However in a business environment, touching is very minimal and personal space is respected much more than in a family setting.

Value of Time
Being prompt is the way to go.

Gestures
An inverted two-finger "peace sign" or "V for victory sign is an obscenity. People tend to walk on the left and pass on the right. Tapping the side of the forehead in the UK means you are stupid, not smart.

Gift Giving
Gifts are not usually exchanged at a first meeting. If invited to an English household, it is appropriate to bring flowers (avoid white lilies as they are reserved for funerals), good wine, liquor, or chocolates. Make sure that gifts are nicely wrapped.

Dress
The English value being well dressed and nicely groomed. For men: conservative, dark or medium colored suits with shirts and conservative ties. Avoid striped ties. For women: stylish yet classic business suits or dresses and blouses. Accessories are usually worn.

Titles and Business Cards


Titles are important and it is best to address people directly by using Mr., Mrs., or Miss, followed by the surname. Note that these are spelled without the . throughout the country. One should always wait to be invited to use first names before doing so yourself. Business cards are essential and usually exchanged.

ITALY
LOCATION: Europe GOVERNMENT: Republic OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Italian (official), German ,French Slovene MAJOR RELIGION(S): Approximately 90% Roman Catholic; mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community. MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south).

Greetings
Man greeting Man Men usually shake hands when greeting one another while maintaining direct eye contact. Good friends and family will engage in a light hug. In certain regions, good friends and family. Woman greeting Woman- Light kisses on the cheeks (usually 2 or 3) are the most common form of greeting for friends and family. Often times it is just a light touching of cheeks rather than actual kisses. At a first meeting a regular handshake or simple nod of acknowledgment will usually do. Greetings between Men & Women- Light kisses (usually 2 or 3) on the cheeks are the most common form of greeting for friends and family. Often times it is just a light touching of cheeks rather than actual kisses. At a first meeting a regular handshake will do.

Communication Style
Italians tend to be direct but in a diplomatic way. The will tell you the truth but often in a polite manner. Communication tends to be more on the formal side when in public and much less so in private. Italians are known for being very animated and dramatic (sometimes overly) during conversations. Large displays of emotion are very common and acceptable in public situations.

Personal Space & Touching

An arm's length distance or a bit less is usually an appropriate amount of personal space during conversations. This space tends to be considerably less between friends and family. Italians tend to touch quite a bit during conversations. This is more common with good friends and family then say in business or formal situations.

Eye Contact
Direct eye contact tends to be the norm and is expected and appreciated. It is usually considered extremely rude to not look someone in the eyes when speaking, especially when shaking hands.

Value of Time
The view of time in tends to be somewhat flexible. In social situations it is common to show up late but being on time for business situations is expected. Appointments and deadlines tend to be kept and most transportation services run on time.

Dress
Ones manner of dress is a reflection of ones public image, and hence brand names and sense of style are all important ways to judge someone in Italy. For Men: Stylish suits with shirts and ties. Bright color shirts are usually acceptable. For Women: Stylish business suits or dresses and blouses. Accessories are usually worn as are high heels. Somewhat revealing clothing may be acceptable in various situations.

Gift Giving
Gifts are generally not given in business settings, unless perhaps there is a very important delegation that visits. Avoid gifts like a letter opener, knives, and or scissors as they can mean a severing of relations. Gifts tend to be opened when received.

Titles & Business Cards


Titles are important and it is best to address people directly by using Mr., Mrs., or Miss, followed by the surname. Note: Signore is for Mr., "Signora " is Mrs. and "Signorina" is Miss. People with university degrees are usually addressed as Dottore or Dottoressa followed by the family name. You should always wait to be invited to use first names before doing so yourself. It is very common to have your title prominent on your business card. Before a meeting, business cards are usually exchanged using one hand, it doesnt tend to matter if it is the right or left.

Difference between Indian culture and Western culture


INDIAN CULTURE
Strong believer in faith and luck.

WESTERN CULTURE
Do not believe in faith and luck . Rather believe that everything is possible through hard work and efforts. Westerners believe in materialism. Fashionable cloths even exposing they may be are in thing in west.

Indians believe in Spiritualism Exposure of body in dress strongly objected to and considered obscene.

INDIAN CULTURE

WESTERN CULTURE

Sons are required to take Old parents are not cared care of their parents. for. They have to look for old age persons home . Women is given respect in traditional sense. Women are looked as an object of pleasure. Lesser freedom of doing Women are very free in jobs and movement. every aspect.

Different Dressing styles of different countries

INDIA

ITALY ENGLAND

JAPAN