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Radiographic Testing (RT)

In radiographic testing, X-rays and gamma rays are used. They are electromagnetic radiation of very high energy and very low wavelength . Unlike other members of the electromagnetic radiation family, they are capable of penetrating matter. The physical properties of X-rays and gamma rays are essentially same. They differ only in their origin X-rays -the fast moving electrons are suddenly decelerated and in this process part of the kinetic energy is converted into X-ray photon energy. 200KV:600KV:1000KV units are available. Gamma rays obtained from artificially produced radioactive isotopes. Normal elements like Co(59) , Ir 191 are converted to Co(60) and Ir 192 respectively by neutron bombardment in nuclear reactors which provide neutron flux. These radioactive isotopes disintegrate or decay giving out gamma rays. Other radioactive isotope that is used in industry is Cs 137. High energy sources more than 2 Mev are also employed in industrial radiography. (Linac)

Properties of X-rays and gamma rays 1.Straightline propagation: nondeflectability: invisibility 2. Penetrability 3. Attenuation I = Io e - t

As the radiation penetrates the matter, the intensity is getting reduced as given by the above expression Io Intensity is reduced
I 4. Differential attenuation If there are variations in the material, naturally, the attenuations will differ. Inclusion Crack I1 I2 I1 I3 I1 The properties 1,2,3 & 4 are responsible for the information of inside of the specimen which can be obtained from outcoming radiation. X-Rays are invisible - Information is not readily available

5. Excitation X-rays and gamma rays are capable of exciting the electrons in the atom to higher energy levels. Excitation of electrons in some material leads to fluorescence, emission of light. 6. Ionisation X-rays and gamma rays are ionising in nature, meaning they are capable of removing the electron from the matter. Ionisation leads to photographic effect in photographic films.

Fluorescence effect is the basis for fluoroscopy and photographic effect is used in film radiography 1. Photographic effect (Film radiography) 2. Fluorescence effect (Fluoroscopy or RTR) Penetration, St.line propagation,absorption and differential absorption are responsible for shadow image formation
Excitation and ionisation are responsible for recording the image information

Recording mediums X- rays and gamma rays are invisible. Detectors or recording mediums are used to see the effect of X-rays or to see X-ray or gamma ray images Photographic effect More X-rays Less X-rays Film More ionization Less ionization On development More darkening Less darkening --- Shadow

Fluoresence effect More X-rays More excitation More light Less X-rays Less excitation Less light

Fl.Screen Visible

The purpose of recording medium is to make the invisible X-ray and gamma ray image, visible

Principle of radiography testing

X-rays and Gamma rays are allowed to penetrate the material. They are absorbed as they penetrate the material. They are differentially absorbed when there is variation in material.
As a result of differential absorption, different intensities are coming out the specimen carrying information about the variations. As these are invisible, they are allowed to fall on a recording medium to form a shadow image or silhouette image. The recording mediums are

1. Photographic film (Film Radiography) (-ve image)

2. Fluorescent screen (Fluoroscopy or RTR) (+ve image) -Shadow image of the object

-Medicinal X-ray (max.50KV)

Other applications: 1. Correctness of assembly 2. Connections in PCB and chips

3.Baggage checking in airports by security & customs

Set-up for radiography

Source (X-rays or rays)

defect (lower density) Specimen Film or Fluorescent screen more X-rays - more darkening of film more X-ray more brightness in fluorescent screen

The above Fig. also illustrates the principle of radiography. Depending on the attenuation value of the discontinuity compared to the rest of the portion, the film will receive more photographic effect or less photographic effect respectively and more darkening or less darkening of film respectively will occur. In a similar way, the fluorescent screen will emit more light or less light depending upon the nature of discontinuity.

Typical X-ray Machines and Their Applications Maximum voltage- kV 50 Applications and Approximate Thickness Limits Thin sections of most metals; moderate thickness of graphite and beryllium; small electronic components; wood, plastics etc 5 inch aluminum or equivalent 1-inch steel or equivalent 11/2-inch steel or equivalent 3 inch steel or equivalent 4 inch steel or equivalent. 31/2-inch steel or equivalent 41/2-inch steel or equivalent 5-inch steel or equivalent.. 8-inch steel or equivalent 8 inch steel or equivalent 16 -inch steel or equivalent. 20-inch steel or equivalent.


300 400 1000 2000 8 to 25 MeV

Industrial Gamma-Ray Sources and Their Applications Source Applications and Approximate Practical Thickness Limits Thulium 170 Plastics, wood, light alloys. 1/2-inch steel or equivalent Iridium 192 11/2- to 21/2-inch steel or equivalent Av.600KV Cesium 137 1 to 31/2-inch steel or equivalent 900KV Cobalt 60 21/2- to 9-inch steel or 1.17 &1.33 Mev equivalent.

Quality of the image

Subject Contrast a) Image contrast Film Contrast Geometric unsharpness b) Image Definition Sharpness Inherent unsharpness Image Sharpness Radiographic contrast

c) Distortion of image : Graininess

Contrast and definition - Transparency


and Definition Radiographic Contrast: is the degree of density difference between adjacent areas on a radiograph Radiographic definition or sharpness: is the abruptness of change in going from one density to another or density changes at the boundary

Energy of radiation (lower better) Subject contrast Amount of scattered radiation (minimum better) Atomic No. of the material (higher better) Contrast Film contrast Type of film (fine grain size better) Photographic density (higher better) Processing conditions (optimum-better)

Geometric Unsharpness Ug= f X t/SFD - t Definition

SOD (b=SFD-t) OFD (a =t) Focal spot Size (f)

Inherent Unsharpness

Energy of radiation (lower sharpness - better) Film Type (finer grain size sharpness better) Use of screens (good contact sharpness better)

High Contrast

Low Contrast

Ug=F t / D where t is thickness when object is

placed on the film Ug = F t / SFD-t where SFD is source to

film distance

Image quality factors

Variables that be controlled

K V (energy) mA (Current) mts (Time) High Contrast FFD Good definition OFD Least Distortion Focal Spot size Less graininess Type of Film Density of film Processing condition Use of screens Perpendicularity

Assessment of quality of the radiograph Image quality indicators (IQI) or penetrameters Artificial details placed on the specimen and radiographed. The smallest detail that is seen in the radiograph is indicative of the quality of the image and not the size of the defect that can be seen

Image quality indicators:

Two types of penetrameters or image quality indicators are mainly used to determine the quality of the radiographic image. The penetrameters are essentially meant to vary the thickness of the specimen to various levels and the minimum thickness variation that is seen in the radiograph is a measure of the quality of the image. Penetrameter sensitivity is indicative of only the quality of the image and it shall not be related to the size of the defect that can be detected. This is because the penetrameter orientation is ideal with respect to absorption and the actual defect orientation is not known. DIN Penetrameters: 1. They are wires of varying diameters of the same material as that of the specimen. Or the absorption characteristics need be similar to that of the specimen.

2. There are 3 sets containing 16 wires, the first containing wires of numbers 1 to 7 and the second 6-12 and the third set 1016. The relationship between the number of the wire and the diameter is given by n = 6 - 10 log d
3. Suitable set is placed on the specimen on the source side and radiograph is taken. In the processed film, the smallest dia of the wire that is seen is indicative of the sensitivity of the radiograph or the quality of the radiograph. The sensitivity of the radiograph is given by Thinnest dia. of the wire that is seen in Radiograph Sensitivity = --------------------------------------------------- x100 The thickness of the specimen

A sensitivity of 2% or less is required as per standards

ASTM plaque type penetrameters:

Metal plaques of various thicknesses containing holes of diameters of 1T, 2 T and 4 T. Plaque of 2% of the thickness of the specimen is placed and radiographed. In the radiograph 1.the outline of the gives the contrast sensitivity and the 2.perceptible holes gives the definition sensitivity and both put together gives the overall sensitivity. Fig.

The quality levels are 2 - 1T and 2 - 2 T and 2 - 4T depending upon the visibility of the outline of the plaque and smallest perceptible hole. These level can be converted to DIN penetrameter sensitivity by the use of the following equation and the equation also facilitates use any penetrameter in the case the suitable one is not available. Equivalent penetrameter sensittivity = 1/x X (T h/2) where x is the specimen thickness T is the thickness of plaque (inch) and h is the hole dia. (inches)

Eddy current Testing

An alternating current in the coil produces an alternating magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the direction of current and parallel to the axis of the coil. If a conducting specimen is kept near the coil, the magnetic field intersects the specimen inducing eddy currents (known as eddy currents because of circulatory paths) in the specimen. These eddy current in turn sets up a magnetic field in opposition (ie out of phase) to the primary field of the coil, causing a partial reduction of the field in the coil. The decrease in the magnitude of the flux thro the coil causes a change in the impedance of the coil and eddy current testing is essentially measurement of change in impedance of the coil. By monitoring coil impedance, electrical, magnetic and geometric properties of the specimen can be measured. Eddy current lag in phase with depth of material. Phase lag is the parameter that makes it possible to determine the depth of the flaw.