Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

Internal Influences

perception, memory, learning, motivation, personality, emotion, etc. Application: Neuromarketing Study of the brains responses to ads, brands, and other marketing messages

Pepsi Challenge Men & Cars Politics

Issues? Problems?

INFORMATION PROCESSING: PERCEPTION

Attractive Models: Attraction or Distraction?


How effective is this strategy? Attractive Model/Conservative Dress Vs. Attractive Model/Revealing Dress Where is the focus? What is remembered?

What is Information Processing?


Information Processing:

The process through which consumers are exposed to information, attend to it (perceived), comprehend it (transform into information), place it in memory, and retrieve it

Why is information processing important to marketing? How does information processing apply to consumer behavior?

The Process of Perception


Sensation Perception

Vision
Our eyes play tricks on us

Food Tables

What are the dimensions of the two tables?


What is the ratio of length to width of each?

Two tables (adapted from Shepard 1990)

Vision: Two Tables


Tabletops are identical

Smell
Odors create mood and promote memories: What are some of your early associations with smell? How does smell influence your buying behavior?

Coffee = childhood, home Cinnamon buns = sex

the Cinnabon Effect

Successful marketing is about positive associations and memory Smell is hard wired to memory Cinnabon stores are positioned beside stores that dont sell food so theres no smell competition

Why does this matter?

$$$$

Companies exist solely because they infuse odors into packaging

But will the smell cause you to eat more? YES

Hearing

Effect of Sound: Physiological, Psychological, Behavioral Affects mood, behavior, and memory What is Muzak?
Muzak uses sound and music to create mood

High tempo = more stimulation Slower tempo = more relaxing

Touch & Taste

Allowing consumers to touch products increases sales Touching consumers (on shoulder or arm) increases sales Allowing free tasting increases sales Feel obligation to buy Lots of research going on in tasting

Buyology

How would assess a consumers visual perception of a store environment? Do you think you spend more or less with a grocery list?

Alternative explanations?

Are you always paying attention in the grocery store? Driving a car?

What are the two modes of processing?

Why do we buy more than we need? What influences your choice of brands? Other consumer behavior factors or psychological influences?

Stages in Perception: Exposure

Sensory Receptors

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Mouth

Skin

Sensory Stimuli

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure

Absolute Sensory Threshold


Minimum amount of stimulation that canAny specific demographic be detected on a sensory receptor = group(s) seem more likely to difference between something and Differential avoid exposure to ads? nothing Threshold What does it take to be noticed? - When will the billboard be noticed? - Will the garlic in the sauce be tasted? - Will the new scent in the detergent be smelled?

Sensory

men

younger

Ability to sense changes or differences between two stimuli consumers(J.N.D.)

higher social classes

Subliminal Perception/Advertising Definition: Stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness

Example: political ad, 1957 movie theater Does it work? Do you believe these messages are harmful or manipulative? Why or why not?

Any other ads, movies or other media with hidden symbols?

Stages in Perception: Attention


Sensory Receptors Sensory Stimuli

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Mouth

Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure Attention

activates a nerve sensations go to brain consumer needs to allocate mental resources What happens after youve viewed an ad several times or driven by the same billboard several times? Adaptation Level Theory

Determined by 3 factors:

-Stimulus (e.g., novelty)


-Individual -Situational

If a stimulus doesnt change over time we get used to it and its less noticeable

Stages in Perception: Attention


Sensory Receptors Sensory Stimuli

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Mouth

Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure Attention

activates a nerve sensations go to brain consumer needs to allocate mental resources

Determined by 3 factors: -Stimulus

-Individual
-Situational

What types of products have high personal relevance?

Stages in Perception: Attention


Sensory Receptors Sensory Stimuli

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Mouth

Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure Attention

activates a nerve sensations go to brain consumer needs to allocate mental resources

Determined by 3 factors: -Stimulus -Individual

-Situational

Do you think if you are interested in a tv program that you will pay more or less attention to ads?

Attention
Situational Factors
Program Involvement
Program involvement refers to interest in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads. Program involvement has a positive influence on attention
Source: 1Cahners Advertising Research Report 120.1 and 120.12 (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated).

Application Assignment
Examples:

Product changes Communication campaigns Social marketing issues Economic issues Politics

Tuesday, October 13 Draft Idea 2 potential CB concepts chosen

1 paragraph explaining what topic you would like to study

Right Now: Brainstorm 5 assignment ideas/interests Identify relevance to consumer behavior

Stages in Perception: Interpretation


Sensory Receptors Sensory Stimuli Eyes Ears Nose Mouth Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure Three aspects of interpretation: *relative process rather than absolute *subjective and open to a host of psychological biases. *cognitive thinking process or an affective emotional process.

Attention
Interpretation

Interpretation

Assigning meaning to sensations

Stages in Perception: Interpretation


Sensory Receptors Sensory Stimuli Eyes Ears Nose Mouth Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure

Stimulus Organization: we seek to make sense of things


* Gestalt Psychology: derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli rather than from any individual stimulus *Perceptual Categorization:we match cues to things we already know *Consumer Inference: going beyond information that is presented

Attention
Interpretation

Is what you see what you get in marketing? Why?

Gestalt Psychology: Figure/Ground

Absolut Vodka

Gestalt Psychology: Proximity

What do you see in Figure a? What about Figure b?


Things that are close together in space or time tend to be perceived as grouped together. Thus, if you want your audience to associate the product with the presenter, put them close together. If you want them to perceive two ideas as associated, present them in close proximity.

Gestalt Psychology: Closure

Gestalt Psychology: Closure

Cna yuo raed tihs?


i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearchr at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

Perceptual Categorization: Lysols Family of Products

All-purpose cleaners

Air fresheners

Sanitizing wipes

Bathroom cleaners

So, does it make sense for Lysol to introduce ?

Would it make sense for them to introduce a mouthwash?

Interpretation
Consumer Inferences
Interpreting Images

Consumer inferences are becoming increasingly important as advertisers increase their use of visual imagery. A picture is worth a thousand words not just because it may convey reality more efficiently than words but because it may convey meanings that words cannot adequately express.

Courtesy Partnership for a Drug-Free America

What does this demonstrate about CB?

Consumer Inferences Health Halos


McDonald's vs. Subway Which is healthier? Do people pay attention to nutrition information? How does this affect our behavior?

McDonalds
57/250 were able to recount nutrition information Most recounted nutritional information food is caloric and not healthy

Subway
157/250 recalled some form of nutrition information general impression food was healthy but did not pay attention to the specifics

estimated they ate 876 calories but actually ate 1,093 calories (25% more than they thought)

estimated they ate 495 calories but actually ate 677 (34% more than they thought)

Consumer Inferences Health Halos


McDonald's vs. Subway

Implications:
many people inferred all Subway food was less caloric people made decisions under the illusion that everything at Subway is healthier consumers get false confidence in what they are eating and it gives them a health halo to all Subway foods, including mayo, bacon, chips, cookies, and large drinks Still not all that bad: Subway diners still remembered more nutrition information and ate less than those at McDonalds

Absolute Sensory Threshold: Identify the brand

return

Differential Sensory Threshold: JND Who is this person?

next

Differential Sensory Threshold: Just Noticeable Difference


1907: What brand is this?

1935: color added

1960: corner curl

1971: more complexity

1987: contemporary type font

2005: logo is simplified return