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Chapter 1

Introduction to Accounting and Business

Objectives
1. Describe the nature of a business. After studying this 2. Describe the chapter, role of accounting in business. you should 3. Describe the importance business ethics and be ableof to: the basic principles of proper ethical conduct. 4. Describe the profession of accounting. 5. Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice. 6. State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

Objectives
7. Explain how business transactions can be stated in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the accounting equation. 8. Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate. 9. Use the ratio of liabilities to owners equity to analyze the ability of a business to withstand poor business conditions.

STEP ONE
ANALYZING LOOKING AT EVENTS THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE AND THINKING ABOUT HOW THEY AFFECT THE BUSINESS

STEP TWO
RECORDING ENTERING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT EVENTS INTO THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM

STEP THREE
CLASSIFYING SORTING AND GROUPING SIMILAR ITEMS TOGETHER

STEP FOUR
SUMMARIZING BRINGING THE VARIOUS ITEMS OF INFORMATION TOGETHER TO DETERMINE A RESULT

STEP FIVE
REPORTING TELLING THE RESULTS

STEP SIX
INTERPRETING DECIDING THE MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF THE INFORMATION IN VARIOUS REPORTS

Types of Businesses
Service Business
Product

Triwasana Garuda Indonesia Hilton Hotels Bank BRI Telkomsel

Entertainment Transportation Hospitality and lodging Financial Telecommunication

Types of Businesses
Merchandising Business
Product

Matahari Toys City Electronic City Amazon.com

General merchandise Toys Consumer electronics Internet books, music, video retailer

Types of Businesses
Manufacturing Business
Product

Toyota Astra Motor Intel Boeing Adidas Coca-Cola Polytron

Cars, trucks, vans Computer chips Jet aircraft Athletic shoes and apparel Beverages Stereos and television

There are three types of business organizations


Proprietorship Partnership Corporation

A proprietorship is owned by one individual.

Advantages
Ease in organizing Low cost of organizing

Joes

Disadvantage Limited source of financial resources Unlimited liability

A partnership is owned by two or more individuals.

Advantages More financial resources than a proprietorship. Additional management skills.


Disadvantage Unlimited liability.

Joe and Martys

A corporation is organized under state or federal statutes as a separate legal entity.

Advantage The ability to obtain large amounts of resources by issuing stocks. Disadvantage Double taxation.

J & M, Inc.

Business Strategies
A business strategy is an integrated set of plans and actions designed to enable the business to gain an advantage over its competitors, and in doing so, to maximize its profits.

Business Strategies
Under a low-cost strategy, a business designs and produces products or services of acceptable quality at a cost lower than that of its competitors.
Wal-Mart

Southwest Airlines

Business Strategies
Under a differential strategy, a business designs and produces products or services that possess unique attributes or characteristics which customers are willing to pay a premium price.
Maytag
Tommy Hilfiger

Value Chain of a Business


A value chain is the way a business adds value for its customers by processing inputs into product or service.
Inputs Business Processes Products or Services Customer Value

Business Stakeholders
A business stakeholder is a person or entity having an interest in the economic performance of the business.

The Process of Providing Information

Identify stakeholders.

STAKEHOLDERS External: Internal: Customers, Owners, creditors, managers, government employees

Assess stakeholders informational needs.

The Process of Providing Information


Record economic data about business activities and events. Design the accounting information system to meet stakeholders needs.

Accounting Information System

The Process of Providing Information


STAKEHOLDERS

Internal: Owners, managers, employees

External: Customers, creditors, government

Prepare accounting reports for stakeholders.

Accounting Information System

Business Ethics
Sound Principles that form the foundation for ethical behavior
1. Avoid small ethical lapses. 2. Focus on your long-term reputation. 3. You may expect to suffer adverse personal consequences for holding to an ethical position.

Profession of Accounting
Accountants employed by a business firm or a not-for-profit organization are said to be engaged in private accounting. Accountants and their staff who provide services on a fee basis are said to be employed in public accounting.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

The business entity concept limits the economic data in the accounting system to data related directly to the activities of the business. The cost concept is the basis for entering the exchange price, or cost of an acquisition in the accounting records.

The objectivity concept requires that the accounting records and reports be based upon objective evidence. The unit-of-measure concept requires that economic data be recorded in dollars.

The Accounting Equation


Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity
The resources owned by a business

The Accounting Equation


Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity
The rights of the creditors, which represent debts of the business

The Accounting Equation


Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity
The rights of the owners

What is a business transaction?

A business transaction is an economic event or


condition that directly changes an entitys financial condition or directly affects its results of operations.

On November 1, 2005, Chris Clark begins a business that will be known as NetSolutions.

a. Chris Clark deposits $25,000 in a bank account in the name of NetSolutions.


Assets
a. Cash 25,000 = = Owners Equity Chris Clark, Capital 25,000 Investment by Chris Clark

b. NetSolutions exchanged $20,000 for land.


Owners Equity Chris Clark, Capital 25,000 25,000

Assets
Cash + Land Bal. 25,000 b. 20,000 +20,000 Bal. 5,000 20,000

= =

c. During the month, NetSolutions purchased supplies for $1,350 and agreed to pay the supplier in the near future (on account).
Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land


Bal. 5,000 c. Bal. 5,000 20,000 + 1,350 1,350 20,000 =

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital


25,000 + 1,350 1,350 25,000

d. NetSolutions provided services to customers, earning fees of $7,500 and received the amount in cash.
Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land Bal. 5,000 1,350 20,000 d. + 7,500 Bal. 12,500 1,350 20,000

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital 1,350 25,000 + 7,500 Fees earned 1,350 32,500

e. NetSolutions paid the following expenses: wages, $2,125; rent, $800; utilities, $450; and miscellaneous, $275.
Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land Bal. 12,500 1,350 20,000 e. 3,650

Bal.8,850

1,350

20,000

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital 1,350 32,500 2,125 Wages 800 Rent 450 Util. 275 Misc. 1,350 28,850

f. NetSolutions paid $950 to creditors during the month.


Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land Bal. 8,850 1,350 20,000 f. 950 Bal. 7,900 1,350 20,000

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital 1,350 28,850 950 400 28,850

g. At the end of the month, the cost of supplies on hand is $550, so $800 of supplies were used.
Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land Bal. 7,900 1,350 20,000 g. 800 Bal. 7,900 550 20,000

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital 400 28,850 800 Supplies expense 400 28,050

h. At the end of the month, Chris withdrew $2,000 in cash from the business for personal use.
Assets =

Cash + Supplies + Land Bal. 7,900 550 20,000 h. 2,000 Bal. 5,900 550 20,000

Owners Liabilities + Equity Accounts Chris Clark, Payable Capital 400 28,050 2,000 Withdrawal 400 26,050

Effects of Transactions on Owners Equity


Owners Equity Decreased by Increased by

Owners withdrawals Expenses

Owners investments Revenues

Net income

Accounting reports, called financial statements, provide summarized information to the owner.

Financial Statements
Income statementA summary of the revenue and expenses for a specific period of time. Statement of owners equityA summary of the changes in the owners equity that have occurred during a specific period of time. Balance sheetA list of the assets, liabilities, and owners equity as of a specific date. Statement of cash flowsA summary of the cash receipts and disbursements for a specific period of time.

NetSolutions Income Statement For the Month Ended November 30, 2005 Fees earned Operating expenses: Wages expense Rent expense Supplies expense $2 125 00 800 00 $7 500 00

Utilities expense Miscellaneous expense Total operating expenses


Net income

800 00 450 00
275 00

1 135 00
$3 050 00

To the statement of owners equity

NetSolutions Statement of Owners Equity For the Month Ended November 30, 2005 Chris Clark, capital, November 1, 2005 Investment on November 1 From the income Net income for November $25 000 00 3 050 00 $28 050 00 2 000 00 26 050 00 $26 050 00 $ 0

statement

Less withdrawals Increase in owners equity To the Chris Clark, capital, November 30, 2005

balance sheet

NetSolutions Balance Sheet November 30, 2005 Assets

From the statement of Liabilities owners equity

Cash Supplies Land


Total assets

$ 5 900 00 Accounts Payable $ 400 00 550 00 Owners Equity 20 000 00 Chris Clark, cap. 26 050 00 Total liabilities and $26 450 00 owners equity $26 450 00

This balance sheet presented using the account form

When the balance sheet displays the liabilities and owners equity below the assets, the report form is being used.

NetSolutions Statement of Cash Flows For the Month Ended November 30, 2005 Cash flows from operating activities: Cash received from customers $ 7 500 00 Deduct cash payments for expenses and payments to creditors 4 600 00 Net cash flow from operating activities 2 900 00 Cash flows from investing activities: Cash payment for acquisition of land (20 000 00 ) Cash flows from financing activities: Cash received as owners investment $25 000 00 Deduct cash withdrawal by owner 2 000 00 Net cash flow from financing activities 23 000 00 Net cash flow and Nov. 30, 2005 cash bal. sheet $ 5 900 00 Should match Cash on the balance

Statement of Cash Flows


Cash Flows from Operating ActivitiesThis section reports a summary of cash receipts and cash payments from operations. Cash Flows from Investing ActivitiesThis section reports the cash transactions for the acquisition and sale of relatively permanent assets. Cash Flows from Financing ActivitiesThis section reports the cash transactions related to cash investments by the owner, borrowings, and cash withdrawals by the owner.

Tools for Financial Analysis and Interpretation


The ratio of liabilities to owners equity allows owners like Chris Clark to analyze the firms ability to withstand poor business conditions.
Total Liabilities Ratio of liabilities = to owners equity Total owners equity (or total stockholders equity)

Tools for Financial Analysis and Interpretation


Ratio of $400 liabilities to = $26,050 owners equity Ratio of liabilities to = 0.015 owners equity

Chapter 1

The End