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ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM

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CONTENTS:
2.1
2.2 2.3

Structure and Function of the Ecology


Ecosystem Concept and Management Biodiversity

2.4
2.5

Biosphere Cyclic Processes


Environmental Limits
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2.1 Structure and Function of the Ecology

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Living organisms; humans, & non-living elements

of the environment interact, frequently in complex ways. ECOLOGY DEFINITION OF ECOLOGY:

Study of the structure and function of nature


Study of interactions between organisms (biotic) & their non-living (abiotic) environment Science of the relations of organisms to their total environment
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CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF ECOLOGY


1. Life processes explaining adaptations

2. Distribution and abundance of organisms the movement of materials and energy through living communities
3. Succession development of ecosystems

4. Abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.


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ECOLOGY PARAMETERS
MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD
The fraction of primary production

(as organic matter) in excess


Used for metabolism (net primary

production)
it is feasible to remove on an ongoing

basis without destroying the primary productivity (i.e. safe harvest).


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CARRYING CAPACITY
Maximum number of individuals that can

be supported in a given environment


Maximum population of a given species that can be supported indefinitely in a particular region by a system

- allowing for seasonal and random changes, without any degradation of the natural resource base.

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ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY
The limiting resource may not be an input

such as food or water,


Inability to deal with outputs (waste

products).
Environment has some capacity to purify

pollutants up to a point where the pollutant(s) hinder or wholly destroy.


Capacity = assimilative capacity.
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2.2 Ecosystem Concept and Management

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ECOSYSTEM
DEFINITION:
Energy-driven complex of a community of organisms and its controlling environment (Billings, 1978); Community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit

(Dickinson and Murphy, 1998);


Integration of all the living and non-living

factors of an environment for a defined segment of space and time


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2 ways of viewing ecosystem:

1. Population
6 majors features of ecosystem

2.

processes

1. Interdependence 2. Diversity 3. Resilience


3 types of ecosystem:

4. Adaptability 5. Unpredictability 6. Limits

1. Isolated system 3. Open system


Classification of ecosystem

2. Closed system

1. Natural 3. Controlled

2. Modified
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Relations between ecosystem components

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2 APPROACHES TO STUDYING ECOSYSTEMS


REAL WORLD ECOSYSTEM
HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
MATHEMATICAL ARGUMENT

PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTATION STATISTICAL ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION

MATHEMATICAL CONCLUSION

(B)

CONCLUSIONS APPLICABLE TO THE REAL WORLD

(A)

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Ecosystem concept has two main of thought:


Organism centered view Landscape centered view

Ecosystem have energy flow and nutrient cycling:

Figure. Energy flows and material cycles.


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The animals and plants within energy flow called

trophic level: (1) Autotrophic


Self make food photosynthetic autotrophic and chemoautotroph Produce their own organic material complex (carbohydrate=sugar) from inorganic chemical (CO2 0.03% atmosphere) and energy

(2) Heterotrophic require inorganic complex substance

and energy from living (biotic) organism


Utilize organic complex from autotrophic Utilize dead organic matter Utilize living tissues
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Food Chain and Food Web


Food chain the passage of energy from a primary producers through a series producer at higher trophic levels

Food web is interconnecting of a number of food chain in an ecosystem

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Life zone/structure
In the world, life zone called as biomes Biomes major unit of distinctive plant and animal groups well

adapted to their surrounding environment


Determined

by

climax

community

(temperature

and

precipitation)
2 types of biomes;
Terrestrial/land Aquatic

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Types of Biomes
AQUATIC BIOMES
Freshwater rivers, streams and lakes b) Marine intertidal zones and open oceans c) Estuaries between freshwater and salt water (Ex. Marshlands, swamps, lagoons etc.)
a)

LAND BIOMES
a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Tundra Taiga or boreal forest Tropical broadleaf evergreen forest Temperate broadleaf deciduous forest Tropical savannas Desserts crib Temperate grasslands

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Freshwater
Lentic system (non-flowing)
Ponds, ditches, reservoirs, seeps, lakes, vernal/ephemeral

pools

Lotic system (flowing)


Creeks, streams, runs, rivers, springs, brooks, channels

Wetland (interface between terrestrial and aquatic

system)

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Marine
(1) Salt marshes

Offshore barrier, plants damage by wave

(2) Estuaries

Between freshwater and marine water

(3) Mangrove

Nurseries for many marine species shrimp Plant in red mangrove adapt to the warm, shallow and produce salt-tolerant seed

(4) Abyss plain


Deep, cold and dark Bioluminescence occurs


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Figure: Abyssal life organism

Figure: Abyssal plain

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2.3 BIODIVERSITY

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Biodiversity
Definition:
Diversity of life in Earth

Variety at all levels of biological organization - of

genes, species and ecosystem


Components of biodiversity
Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecosystem diversity

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Regions and ecosystem vary in biodiversity


Biodiversity hotspot tropics, island and other areas Diverse ecosystem mostly in tropical rainforest,

coral reef and islands Endemic species one place in the world, mainly islands

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Why is biodiversity important?


Economic value Utilitarian value 1)

resources, including food, 2) medicines and other helpful chemicals 3) genes for better crops 4) opportunity cost
1)

2)
3) 4)

5)
6)

purify water recycle CO2 regulate climate recycle nutrients through decomposition collectively, ecosystem services prevent erosion

Intrinsic value independent of humans

Psychological value

direct or indirect enjoyment of nature


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Biodiversity and sustainable


Sustainability
ability to maintain something over a long period of

time Is an indicator of ecosystem health more sustainable, more healthier in order to deal with external stress
Biodiversity

of an ecosystem sustainability of ecosystem

contributes

to

the

Higher/more biodiversity = more sustainable. Lower/less biodiversity = less sustainable. High biodiversity means that there is a great variety of

genes and species


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The more sustainable an ecosystem is, the better it is

for the environment and for people. People use ecosystems as sources of food, medicine and economy. Thus, it is in everyones best interest to increase the sustainability of ecosystems. How can we do this?

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For Example:

The greater the variety of genes and species of fish, plants and animals in the Lake Kenyir ecosystem, the more biodiversity. Higher biodiversity will increase the ecosystems sustainability Why is this important? Lake Kenyir We rely on Lake Kenyirs ecosystem for many things: fish for food and commercial use (revenue). land and plants for food and revenue (agriculture). nutrients from biogeochemical cycles. water and landscape for tourism (beaches, etc.).

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DEVELOPMENT OF APARTMENTS & HOTELS IN CAMERON HIGHLANDS

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POTENTIAL TO COMBINE BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION WITH SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS


Tolerant forest management Extractive reserves Green tourism Ecotourism
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2.4 BIOSPEHERE CYCLIC PROCESSES

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Biosphere
Population:

a group of individuals of one species in an area, potentially interacting (e.g., competition, reproduction)
Community:

a group of populations of different species in an area, potentially interacting


Ecosystem: a community (or group of linked communities), their

physical environment, and their interactions


Biosphere: all of Earths ecosystems; the part of the planet capable

of supporting life
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Biogeochemical nutrient cycle


Organisms have 5 major components for them
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Phosphorus Nitrogen Carbon Water Sulphur

Biogeochemical cycling study about biological,

geological and chemical behavior of elements in ecosystem

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Carbon cycle

CO2 consume photosynthesis, air-sea gas exchange CO2 production respiration, geological events (volcano)

CO2 increase by deforestation and burn fossil fuels


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Nitrogen cycle

Several processes of

nitrogen cycle:
(1) nitrogen fixation (2) Nitrification (3) Assimilation (4) Dentrification

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Water cycle

Hydrological cycle in earth can:


Air and ocean Ocean and land Land and air
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Phosphorus cycle

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BIOSPEHERE CYCLIC PROCESSES


Cyclic processes move and renew supplies of energy, water, chemical elements & atmospheric gases.
Cycles affect the physical environment & organisms, & some are affected by lifeforms. Cycles may be classified as (1) natural, (2) upset by

humans, and (3) recycling


Many of group (1) have already been converted to (2); conversion of some type (2) to (3) is an important goal for environmental managers.
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FACTORS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:


Variation in incoming solar energy due

to fluctuations in the Suns output or possibly dust in space;


Variation in the Earths orbit or change in its inclination about its axis; Variation in the composition of the atmosphere
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CLIMATE CHANGE

A glacier calving into the sea, Cumberland Bay, South Georgia ; Climate is not static.
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