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Mendel Inheritance (I)

The law of segregation of allelic genes (Pemisahan gen yang sealel)

Gene
is a unit of heredity in a living organism. It normally resides on a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. A modern working definition of a gene is "a locatable region of genomic sequence, corresponding to a unit of inheritance, which is associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions, and or other functional sequence regions ".
Note :

Introns are regions often found in eukaryote genes that are removed in the splicing process (after the DNA is transcribed into RNA): Only the exons encode the protein.
Source : Pearson H (2006). "Genetics: what is a gene?". Nature 441 (7092): 398401.

Gene

Allele
An allele (Greek allelos, meaning each other) is one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene. Each gene can have different alleles. Sometimes, different DNA sequences (alleles) can result in different traits1, such as color. Sometimes, different DNA sequences (alleles) will have the same result in the expression of a gene.

1) In biological term, trait which involve genes and characteristics of organisms Phenotypic trait, a trait is a distinct variant of a phenotypic character of an organism that may be inherited, environmentally determined or somewhere in between. For example, eye color is a character or abstraction of an attribute, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.

Allele
For example: At the gene locus for ABO blood type proteins in humans,classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and IO, that determines compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes1 (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, and OO) that produce one of four possible phenotypes2: 1. "A" (produced by AA homozygous3 and AO heterozygous4 genotypes), 2. "B" (produced by BB homozygous and BO heterozygous genotypes), 3. "AB" heterozygotes, and 4. "O" homozygotes
1) The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell, an organism, or an individual (i.e. the specific allele makeup of the individual) usually with reference to a specific character under consideration.

Allele
For example: At the gene locus for ABO blood type proteins in humans,classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and IO, that determines compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes1 (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, and OO) that produce one of four possible phenotypes2: 1. "A" (produced by AA homozygous3 and AO heterozygous4 genotypes), 2. "B" (produced by BB homozygous and BO heterozygous genotypes), 3. "AB" heterozygotes, and 4. "O" homozygotes
2) A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two.

Allele
For example: At the gene locus for ABO blood type proteins in humans,classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and IO, that determines compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes1 (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, and OO) that produce one of four possible phenotypes2: 1. "A" (produced by AA homozygous3 and AO heterozygous4 genotypes), 2. "B" (produced by BB homozygous and BO heterozygous genotypes), 3. "AB" heterozygotes, and 4. "O" homozygotes
3) A cell is said to be homozygous for a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous chromosomes. 4) A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene.

Allele
For example: At the gene locus for ABO blood type proteins in humans,classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and IO, that determines compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes1 (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, and OO) that produce one of four possible phenotypes2: 1. "A" (produced by AA homozygous3 and AO heterozygous4 genotypes), 2. "B" (produced by BB homozygous and BO heterozygous genotypes), 3. "AB" heterozygotes, and 4. "O" homozygotes
3) A cell is said to be homozygous for a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous chromosomes. 4) A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene.

Ploidy
Ploidy refers to the number of sets of chromosomes in a biological cell.

Human germ cells (sperm and egg) have one complete set of chromosomes from the male or female parent. Germ cells, also called gametes, combine to produce somatic cells. Somatic cells therefore have twice as many chromosomes. The haploid number (n) is the number of chromosomes in a gamete. A somatic cell has twice that many chromosomes (2n).
Humans are diploid. A human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes: 2 complete haploid sets, which make up 23 homologous chromosome pairs. However, many organisms have more than two sets of homologous chromosomes and are called polyploid.

1)

Alasan Mendel menggunakan ercis (Pisum sativum):

Tanaman ercis merupakan tanaman yang berumur pendek (annual), mudah tumbuh dan mudah disilangkan Memiliki bunga sempurna, artinya bunga ercis mempunyai benang sari dan putik, sehingga selain dapat melakukan penyerbukan sendiri juga dapat disilangkan dengan bantuan manusia Mempunyai tujuh karakter dengan perbedaan yang menyolok

1) Dominan adalah suatu sifat yang mengalahkan sifat lain, sedangkan sifat yang dikalahkan disebut sifat resesif. Gen yang menentukan sifat dominan adalah gen dominan, sedangkan sifat resesif ditentukan oleh alelnya yang resesif. Gen dominan dinyatakan dengan huruf kapital, sedangkan gen resesif dinyatakan dengan huruf kecil

Mendels Experiment

Rumus Pewarisan Mendel

Rumus Pewarisan Mendel

Pewarisan monohibrid dominansi penuh

Pewarisan dihibrid dominansi penuh

Exercise & Problems


SEGREGATION 1. Mendel crossed tall pea plants with dwarf ones.The F1 plants were all tall. When these F1 plants were selfed to produce the F2 generation, he got a 3:1 tallto-dwarf ratio in the offspring. Predict the genotypes and phenotypes and relative proportions of the F3 generation produced when the F2 generation was selfed. 2. In Drosophila, a cross between a dark-bodied fly and a tan-bodied fly yields seventy-six tan and eighty dark flies. Diagram the cross. 3. If two black mice are crossed, ten black and three white mice result. a. Which allele is dominant? b. Which allele is recessive? c. What are the genotypes of the parents? 4. In Drosophila, two red-eyed flies mate and yield 110 red-eyed and 35 brown-eyed offspring. Diagram the cross and determine which allele is dominant.