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CHAPTER ONE

The Globalization of International Relations


Dr. Clayton Thyne PS 235-001: World Politics Spring 2009 Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations, 8/e Student notes version

The Study of International Relations


International relations concerns Narrowly defined:

Many other actors exist Relationships cannot be understood... Central trend in IR today:

IR and Daily Life


IR profoundly affects your life as well as that of other citizens.

War is among the most pervasive international influences in daily life, even in peacetime.

World is shrinking year by year.

Core Principles
IR revolves around one key problem: How can a group such as two or more nations serve its ________________ when doing so requires its members to forego their ________________ interests? Example:

3 solutionsthe next 3 slides (see Table 1.1 on p. 6)

CA solution #1: Dominance


Solves the collective goods problem by

Advantage(s):

Disadvantage(s):

Nuke example:

CA solution #2: Reciprocity


Solves the collective goods problem by

Advantage(s):

Disadvantage(s):

Nuke example:

CA solution #3: Identity


Solves the collective goods problem by

Advantage(s):

Disadvantage(s):

Nuke example:

IR as a Field of Study
IR is about international politics, but the field is _________________

Practical discipline

IR is 1 of 4 subfields in political science. The others are


_______________________ _______________________ _______________________

General focus of IR:

State Actors
Most important actors in IR are __________________. State:
State government exercises ___________________over its territory. Recognized as ____________________ by other states Seat of government with a leader

State definition versus:


- Nation: - Country: - Nation-state:

Some quasi-states:

State Actors
International system
Def:

Modern international system has existed for less than _____________________ years.
Great variation on a number of key variables, including[see next 6 slides].

The World Today: Major Powers


State FRN UKG GMY JPN RUS CHN USA % of power .022824 .024668 .029424 .051258 .052549 .128823 .149792

The World Today: Concentration of Power


80 % of states 0 20 40 60

.05 Capability

.1

.15

The World Today: Democracy


Distribution of Democracy
40 Frequency 0
-10

10

20

30

-5

0 Polity Scale

10

Proportion of Democracies in the System


.6 0
1800

.2

.4

1850

1900 Year

1950

2000

Figure 1.1

Economic Output

very low (87) low (5) moderate (46) high (45)

GDP/capita

very poor (45) poor (44) medium (45) wealthy (44) No data (5)

population

very low (46) low (46) medium (46) high (45)

Democracy

very repressive (41) non-democracies (37) moderate democracies (45) strong democracies (32) No data (28)

Military Expenditures

very low (46) low (44) moderate (45) high (45) No data (3)

A Closer Look at the US


15000

US vs World Mean Military Personnel

5000 0
1920

10000

1940 US Military Personnel

1960 Year

1980

2000

Military Personnel-Global Average

A Closer Look at the US


3.00e+08

US vs World Mean Military Expenditures

1.00e+08

2.00e+08

0
1920

1940

1960 Year

1980

2000

US Military Expenditures

Military Exp-Global Avg.

Nonstate Actors
Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

Multinational corporations

Substate actors

Individuals

Levels of Analysis
Many actors involved in IR

Response:

Levels of Analysis
Levels of analysis help No correct level for a given why question

Example: War in Iraq


Individual: Domestic: Interstate: Global:

Globalization
Many trends:

Globalization: Three conceptions of this process compete. 1. Liberal economic principles/global marketplace:

2. Skepticism:

3. Middle ground:

Globalization is changing both international security and IPE, but ________________ more quickly and profoundly.

The Evolving International System


The basic structures and principles of international relations are deeply rooted in historical developments. WWI and WWII occupied only ten years of the 20th century, but shaped the character of the century. Well briefly look at key events of the 20th century, focusing on the post Cold War era (1990+), including
WWI (1914-18) WWII (1939-45) Cold War (1946-90)

WWI (1914-18)
WWI (the war to end all wars):

WWI was not short or decisive:

2 main outcomes: 1. Ended w/ __________________________


2. Led to the ____________________________________

WWII (1939-45)
U.S. ___________________ between WWI and WWII, declining _______________ power, and a _________________ crippled by its own revolution left a power vacuum in the world. In the ____________, Germany and Japan stepped into the vacuum w/ aggressive expansionism.

Policies of _________________ allowed Hitler to occupy almost all of Europe

WWI & WWII: contradictory lessons


Lesson from WWI:

Lesson from WWII:

IR scholars have not discovered a simple formula for choosing______________________.

The Cold War, 1945-1990


U.S. and Soviet Union two superpowers of the post-WWII era:

Central concern of the West:

Sino-Soviet alliance:

Scholars do not agree on why the Cold War ended:

0
1900

.1

.2

.3

.4

1920

1940 US strength

1960

1980 USSR strength

2000

The Cold War, 1945-1990


Key events:
Korean War Vietnam War Afghanistan War

Many other proxy wars


Greek Civil War, 1946-1949 Malaysian Emergency, 1948-1960 Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-Present Korean War, 1950-1953 Cuban Revolution, 1953-1959 Tibetan insurgency, 1954-1973 Vietnam War, 1957-1975 Guatemalan Civil War, 1960-1996 Congo Crisis, 1960-1965 Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Angolan Civil War, 1974-2002 Ogaden War,1977-1978 Afghan-Soviet War, 1979-1989 Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979 Iran-Iraq war, 1980-1988 Invasion of Grenada, 1983

The Post-Cold War Era, 19902007


Many key events
Iraq invades Kuwait, 1990 Gulf War Collapse of Soviet Union Declaration of republics as sovereign states Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Western relations with Russia mixed since the 1990s
Little external aid for Russia during the harsh economic transition

Break-up of the former Yugoslavia Rwanda genocide US go it alone policies 9/11 attacks War on Terrorism: Iraq and Afghanistan Nuke problems w/ Iran and N. Korea