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This course is designed to introduce the subject of training and development and its importance to an organization. The focus of this course is to create awareness among the students on the impact of training in organizations. Students are allowed to explore on the merits and demerits of training and development. They are also exposed to the key features of developing a training program and its implementation process.

At the end of this module the students will be able to : Define Training & Development

Describe the benefits of Training & Development

Explain Training Need Analysis (TNA) process Determine the characteristics of TNA

Identify individual learning needs

Identify suitable training strategies Examine blooms taxonomy of learning Determine the needs of appropriate training program Design and develop a training program Assess the outcome of the training program Evaluate and review the training program


Training and development Enables us to understand New Business Environment and how we need to adapt to it.
It shows where and how we need to change in order to give the best performance.
It helps to know and understand new learning methods i.e. Modern techniques & ideas and where, when & how we need to implement it It endures business excellence i.e.

results orientation, customer focus, leadership and constancy of purpose, management by processes and facts, people development and involvement, continuous learning, innovation and improvement

"Training is a short term learning process, which is 'application specific' intended for improving skill or knowledge which has immediate application to the benefit of the individual as well as the organization"


"Development is the process of transition of an employee from lower level of ability, skill and knowledge to that of higher level. This transition is influenced by education, training, work experience and environment. This will improve value of individual employee in terms of his selfdevelopment, career growth and contribution to the organization."

Benefits for the organization

Improves communication between group and individuals. Aid in orientation of new employee and those taking new job through transfer or promotion. Provides information on equal opportunities and affirmative action. Provides information on other government laws and administration policies. Improve interpersonal skills. Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable. Builds cohesiveness in group. Provides a good climate for learning, growth and coordination. Makes the organization a better place to work and live.

Process of Training & Development

Training Needs Identification

Skill-Gap Analysis
Competency Map (Employee Ratings, Observed / Desired / Gaps) Training & Development Plans (Technical / Soft Skills / Knowledge)

Competency Development Program

Performance Improvement Program

Training Calendar
Prioritized List of Training Programs

Individual Analysis
Faculty Feedback & Analysis

Employee / Supervisor Feedback

Developing Knowledge Sharing Practices

Training Effectiveness Parameters

Key Improvement Indicators Defined (Performance, Skills, Competence) Time Frame for Improvement Review Mechanism

Types of Training Programs

On Site Training On the Job Training Apprentice Training Coaching/Mentoring Job Rotation

Off- Site Training

Lectures/Seminars Multimedia Presentations Programmed / Computer Assisted instruction Simulation Role Playing Behavior Modeling

Why do a TNA? To ensure you are spending money on training that is matched to an actual need. If you are not clear about why the training is needed, it is highly unlikely that it will have any long-term benefit to your organisation. To find out what the skills gaps are within your staff this helps their development and is a key aspect of retaining quality staff. To ensure that service users needs are being fully supported and their quality of life remains high as their needs and wants change. Contribute to the creation of a robust training plan an essential document for securing funding for training.

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Designing Effective Training Systems:

The first step in this process, needs assessment, refers to The process used to determine if training is necessary. Figure 1 shows the causes and outcomes resulting from needs assessment. As we see, there are many different pressure points that suggest that training is necessary. These Pressure points include performance problems, new technology, internal or external customer requests for training, job redesign, new legislation, changes in customer preferences, new products or employees lack of basic skills. Note that these pressure points do not guarantee that training is the correct solution.

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Designing Effective Training Systems:

Figure 1 The Needs Assessment Process

Reasons or pressure points Legislation Lack of basic skills Poor performance New technology

What is the context

Outcomes What trainees need to learn Who receives training

Organization analysis In what do they need training

Type of training Frequency of training Task analysis Buy-versus-build training decision Training versus other HR options such as selection or job redesign

Customer requests
New products Higher performance standards New jobs Person analysis

Who needs training?

Designing Effective Training Systems:

Needs assessment typically involves organizational analysis, person analysis, and task analysis.

Organizational analysis involves considering the context in which training will occur. That is, organizational analysis involves determining the appropriateness of training, given the companys business strategy, its resources available for training, and support by managers and peers for training activities.

Person analysis helps to identify who needs training. Person analysis involves (1) determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or workdesign problem, (2) identifying who needs training, and (3) determining employees readiness for training.

Identify Employee Training Needs

1. Conduct a job task analysis of the employee (or group of employees) for whom you are identifying training needs. In order to provide effective training, it's necessary to know exactly what the expectations are for the job. You can gather some of this information by observation and by asking employees to provide you with either verbal or written descriptions of what their jobs entail.

2. Compare employee performance to the job expectations and identify the areas in which there are discrepancies. Identify whether the discrepancy is due to work process issues, such as not knowing how to complete a specific task, or personnel issues, such as not wanting to complete a specific task. Work process issues can be addressed with employee training, while personnel issues are better addressed by an employee review process.

3. Schedule a meeting with all of the employees involved, asking them to bring with them lists of what they consider to be the top five areas in which they feel more training is needed. Share the lists as well as your own observations.
4. Group training issues by category. For example, learning a new computer program would fall into the same category as learning how to use a new piece of equipment, but reviewing customer service strategies would be better categorized with other policy review issues.

5. Prioritize training needs as a group, taking into account that those that have an immediate effect on business performance or employee safety are the most important. Discussing your business goals with your employees can also be helpful in this process. Knowing the desired outcome can assist employees in telling you what they need to know in order to help the company achieve its goals.

Task analysis includes identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks.