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Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer

Thermal Science
This is the combined study of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.

Heat transfer
Heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from hot to cold body

Modes of Heat Transfer

Conduction Convection Radiation

Conduction in a solid, a liquid, or a gas is the movement of heat through a material by the transfer of kinetic energy between atoms or molecules The transfer of heat without the molecules of the material changing their basic position, Drift of free electrons in metals; vibrational waves (phonons) in non-metals. The rate of conduction of heat is dependent on the material conductivity.

Convection in a gas or a liquid is the bulk movement of fluid caused by the tendency for hot areas to rise due to their lower density. The transfer of heat by the bodily movement of particles. It only occurs in liquids and gases, not in solids. Natural convection: air expands when it is heated. This is less dense than the surrounding cooler air, causing it to rise. Examples are a convector heater in a room, heating of water in a storage tank and the stack effect in buildings (the transfer of heat from lower to higher levels).

Radiation is the dissemination of electromagnetic energy from a source. Thus does not require any intervening medium. The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. The heat transfer rate depends upon the temperature of the surface as well as the nature of the surface (roughness, color). Dull black surfaces have high absorption and emission rates, shiny silver surfaces have low absorption and emission rates.

Applications are solar energy collectors which have blackened collector surfaces. Heat will be exchanged by any two surfaces that are in view of one another, if they are at different temperatures. The frequency of the electromagnetic radiation is also dependent on temperature. Hot bodies become visible (dull red) at about 500C, at much higher temperatures, bodies appear white.

Microscopic reasons why a conductor is a conductor

In contrast to conductors, insulators are materials which impede the free flow of electrons from atom to atom and molecule to molecule. If charge is transferred to an insulator at a given location, the excess charge will remain at the initial location of charging.

In a conductor, electric current can flow freely, in an insulator it cannot. Metals such as copper typify conductors, while most non-metallic solids are said to be good insulators, having extremely high resistance to the flow of charge through them. "Conductor" implies that the outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bound and free to move through the material. Most atoms hold on to their electrons tightly and are insulators. In copper, the valence electrons are essentially free and strongly repel each other. Any external influence which moves one of them will cause a repulsion of other electrons which propagates, "domino fashion" through the conductor. Simply stated, most metals are good electrical conductors, most nonmetals are not. Metals are also generally good heat conductors while nonmetals are not.

Black Body Radiation

Any object heated to a temperature T (on an absolute scale) radiates Electromagnetic Energy (light) with total power: P = e s A T4
0<e<1 = emissivity = property of material s = 5.67 10 8 W/(m2 K4) A = surface area of object Early triumph of quantum theory (M. Planck) to predict this equation, including the value of s. Peak wavelength occurs at l = (5.110-3 m K ) / T (Chap 30)

If the surroundings have temperature TS, then the net power radiated is
P = e s A [ T4 - TS4]

Dark, dry, night, TS = 3 K, Black body radiation cools the surface faster than conduction can transport heat from the ground or air. Frost can form even if air temperature > 0C.