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Dynamic Modeling using

UniSim Design 4528


(UDS-310)
Abdul Wahid Surhim

2013
Comparison
STEADY-STATE MODELS
Mass and energy
balance in steady-state
To evaluate some
different scenarios of
plants
DYNAMIC MODELS
To confirm that a
plant can produce the
desired product in a
manner that is safe
and easy to operate
To verify that the
process equipment
functions as expected
in an actual plant
situation
Dynamic Simulations
Process optimization
Controller optimization
Safety evaluation
Transition between operating conditions
Start-up/Shut-down conditions
Benefit
Accuracy
Ease of use
Speed
Detailed design
Customizable
Steps of Dynamic Modeling
SS-Model
7 Control
Objectives
FOPDT
Controller
TUNING
Control
Performance
(IAE, ISE)
Control Theory
7 Control Objectives
Instrumentations
Control valve
Controller
Type
Mode
Action
Tuning
HOW IS CONTROL DESIGN DOCUMENTED?
LC
FC
TC
A
Piping and instrumentation (P&I) drawings provide
documentation.
The system is too complex to describe in text.
We must use standard symbols.
F = flow
L = level
P = pressure
T = temperature
..
Feed

Methane
Ethane (LK)
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
EXAMPLE PROCESS: FLASH SEPARATION
Lets discuss
this process
P ~ 1000 kPa
T ~ 298 K
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 PC
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
High pressure
in drum is
dangerous
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Never release
hydrocarbons
to atmosphere
To flare
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
LC
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
No flow could
damage the
pump
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
FC
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Always keep
the production
rate smooth
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
AC
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Achieve L.Key
by adjusting
the heating
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
AC
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Use the least
costly heating
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Give example
Feed
Vapor
product
Liquid
product
Process
fluid
Steam
F1
F2 F3
T1
T2
T3
T5
T4
T6 P1
L1
A1
L. Key
1. Safety

2. Environmental
Protection

3. Equipment
protection

4. Smooth operation
production rate

5. Product quality

6. High profit

7. Monitoring &
diagnosis
SEVEN CONTROL OBJECTIVES
Calculate & plot
key parameters,
e.g., UA.
time
UA
Pressure-Flow Theory
) , , (
2 1
P P C f F
v
=
Skema Control Valve
Instrumentation Schematic
of Control Valve
Control Valve Characteristics
Flow through the Valve
=

atau



f = flow
C
v
= valve characteristic
Ap
v
= pressure drop of valve
G
f
= specific gravity
Building Dynamic Models
Components
No Components No Components
1 N2 9 n-C5
2 CO2 10 n-C6
3 C1 11 H2O
4 C2 12 NBP200
5 C3 13 NBP280
6 i-C4 14 NBP425
7 n-C4 15 NBP630
8 i-C5 16 NBP920
Hypothetical Component
NBP Liq. Density
NBP200 93.3
o
C
NBP280 138
NBP425 218
NBP630 332
NBP920 493 961 kg/m3
Click Estimate Unknown Props
Operating Conditions of 3 Streams
Alpha Bravo Charlie
Temperature
(
o
C)
88 80 49
Pressure
(kPa)
6480 6650 6620
Flow
(kgmole/h)
10900 9980 11800
Composition of 3 Streams
Alpha Bravo Charlie
N2 0.0150 0.0050 0.0170
CO2 0.0230 0.0100 0.0260
C1 0.7590 0.7190 0.7300
C2 0.0660 0.0620 0.0740
C3 0.0340 0.0410 0.0390
i-C4 0.0060 0.0100 0.0060
n-C4 0.0130 0.0260 0.0140
i-C5 0.0040 0.0100 0.0040
n-C5 0.0050 0.0190 0.0060
n-C6 0.0060 0.0100 0.0070
H2O 0.0380 0.0400 0.0430
NBP200 0.0070 0.0100 0.0080
NBP280 0.0140 0.0210 0.0160
NBP425 0.0060 0.0100 0.0060
NBP630 0.0030 0.0050 0.0030
NBP920 0.0010 0.0020 0.0010
Steady-state Plant
Operating Conditions
COOLER
Delta P : 70 kPa
Hot Vap Temperature : 27
o
C
VALVE
HP Liq1 Pressure : 2690 kPa
Equipment Sizing
VALVE sizing
Valve opening (%) : 50%
Linear
Cv = 102.2
SEPARATOR
Rating Volume: 127 m3
COOLER
Dynamics volume: 15 m3
SS to Dynamic
KLIK
Adding Valve
Cut stream of Alpha, Bravo and Charlie
Make the same stream with the 3
streams and name Alpha1, Bravo1 and
Charlie1
use facility Define from Other Stream
Add 3 valves and name VLV-Alpha, VLV-
Bravo and VLV-Charlie

Operating Condition Changes
In order to flow the fluid, make the following
changes to the flowsheet:
Alpha : 7930
Bravo : 7580
Charlie : 8270
To Sep : 6480
Mixer : Equalize All
Pressure-Flow Specification
Pressure-Flow Specification
Do the same for:
Bravo
Charlie
Hot Vap
HP Liq1
Cooler
Add Controller: 3 FC + 1 LC
Mass Flow
Liquid Percent Level
Define the PV and OP
PV is controlled variable (CV) of an equipment
OP is control valve manipulated variable (MV)
Controller Setting
FC-Alpha, FC-Bravo, FC-Charlie
Process Variable Source: Alpha, Bravo and Charlie
Mass Flow
Action :Reverse
Mode : Manual
OP : 50%
Kc : 0.25
Ti : 0.10 min
Td : -
PV Min : 0 kg/h
PV Max : 365000 kg/h
Controller Setting
LC-HP Sep
Process Variable Source: HP Sep Liquid Percent Level
Action :Direct
Mode : Manual
OP : 50%
Kc : 1.0
Ti : 15. min
Td : -
PV Min : 0%
PV Max : 100%
Face Plate
Strip Charts
Ctrl D to open Databook

Strip Charts
Windows Arrangement
XY Axis Arrangement
Axis X is time
In Databook, part of Stripchart, click Setup
Change Logger Size (# Samples) to 3600
Axis Y is CV value (controlled variable)
In graphic of stripchart, right click, then click
Graph Control
In the Axes window, part of Scaling change
upper and lower limit
Add Controller: TC
Setting Controller: TC-Hot Vap
Process Variable Source : Hot Vap Temperature
Output Target Object : qE-100 Control Valve
Utility Valve
Duty Source : Direct Q
Min : 0 kJ/h
Max : 1.06e8 kJ/h
Action :Direct
PV Min : 10
o
C
PV Max : 65
o
C
Mode : Manual
OP : 50%
Kc : 1.0
Ti : 2.0 min
Td : -
Cascade Controller
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
When I complete this chapter, I want to be
able to do the following.
Identify situations for which cascade is a
good control enhancement
Design cascade control using the five
design rules
Apply the tuning procedure to cascade
control
Outline of the lesson.
A process challenge - improve
performance
Cascade design rules
Good features and application
guidelines
Several process examples
Analogy to management principle
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
TC
2
T
1
F
1
F
2
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Discuss this
stirred tank
heat exchanger.
PID controller
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
TC
2
T
1
F
1
F
2
T
3
L
1
feed
heating stream
Disturbance =
heating pressure

Control
performance
not acceptable!
pressure
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
72
73
74
75
76
IAE = 147.9971 ISE = 285.4111
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

minimum
Class exercise: What do
we do?
TC
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
TC
2
T
1
F
1
F
2
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
Lets think about the
process behavior.
Causal relationship
from P disturbance to
T (without control)
What measurable
effect always occurs
when P changes?
v (valve) ??? Q TC
P
(heating oil)
P
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
TC
2
T
1
F
1
F
2
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
Lets think about the process
behavior.

If we can maintain this variable
approximately constant, can we
reduce the effect of the
disturbance?
v (valve) ??? Q TC
P
(heating oil)
P
TC
2
T
1
F
1
FC
2
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Key variables
for the two
PID controllers.
SP
1
from person
SP
2
= MV
1

CV
2

MV
2

CV
1

A New Control Structure!!
primary
secondary
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Define the
calculations
performed in
the computer.
Class exercise
computer plant
T
2
F
2
computer person
T2
SP

CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Define the
calculations
performed in
the computer.
Class exercise
computer plant
T
2
F
2
computer person
T2
SP

2
2
0
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
2 2
MV v
I ' dt E
) T (
E ) K ( MV
F F E
F
t
F
F I
F F c
sp F
=
+
(
(

+ =
=
}
1
2
0
2
2
2 2 1
2
2
1
2 2
MV F
I ' dt E
) T (
E ) K ( MV
T T E
SP
T
t
T
T I
T T c
sp T
=
+
(
(

+ =
=
}
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Control Performance Comparison for CST Heater
Single-Loop Cascade
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
72
73
74
75
76
IAE = 147.9971 ISE = 285.4111
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

0 50 100 150 200
72
73
74
75
76
IAE = 11.5025 ISE = 1.6655
Much better
performance!
WHY?
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Cascade Control Performance for CST Heater
WHY?
Disturbance in
flow is quickly
corrected.
This compensates for
the disturbance!
0 50 100 150 200
72
73
74
75
76
IAE = 11.5025 ISE = 1.6655
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

0 50 100 150 200
18
18.5
19
19.5
20
20.5
IAE = 11.6538 ISE = 11.2388
Time
h
e
a
t
i
n
g

f
l
o
w

0 50 100 150 200
50
52
54
56
58
SAM = 5.8711 SSM = 4.4807
Time
h
e
a
t
i
n
g

v
a
l
v
e

(
%

o
p
e
n
)

TC
FC
Valve adjustment
is not aggressive!
Disturbance affects
flow sooner
Small deviation,
returns to set point
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
TC
2
T
1
F
1
FC
2
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
SP
1
for person
SP
2
= MV
1

CV
2

MV
2

CV
1

What have we gained and lost
using cascade control?
How does the system respond
to the following?
A disturbance in heating medium inlet pressure
A disturbance in heating medium inlet temperature
A disturbance in feed flow rate
A change to the TC set point
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
CASCADE DESIGN CRITERIA
Cascade is desired when
1. Single-loop performance unacceptable
2. A measured variable is available
A secondary variable must
3. Indicate the occurrence of an important
disturbance
4. Have a causal relationship from valve to
secondary
5. Have a faster response than the primary
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
ADVANTAGES OF CASCADE CONTROL
Large improvement in performance when the
secondary is much faster than primary
Simple technology with PID algorithms
Use of feedback at all levels. Primary has zero offset
for step-like disturbances.
Plant operating personnel find cascades easy to
operate. Open a cascade at one level, and all
controllers above are inactive.

CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
CLASS EXERCISE: SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT
CASCADE CONTROL
Why do we retain the primary controller?
Which modes are required for zero steady-state offset?
Which modes are recommended?
What is the additional cost for cascade control?
Normally, each PID controller represents one
independent controlled variable. Is anything different in
a cascade structure?
What procedure is used for tuning cascade control?
feed
product
heating stream
packed bed
reactor
A
1
T
3
T
2
F
2
F
1
T
1
A
2
Notes:
1. A1 measures reactant concentration
2. Circle is shell & tube heat exchanger
3. Feed valve is adjusted by upstream process
4. Increasing temperature increases reaction rate
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Discuss this
packed bed
reactor.
feed
product
heating stream
packed bed
reactor
AC
1
T
3
T
2
F
2
F
1
T
1
A
2
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Class exercise: Design a cascade control structure to improve performance.
0 100 200 300 400 500
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
C
V
1

maximum
Performance
not acceptable
AC
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Class exercise: Design a cascade control structure to improve performance.
Cascade design criteria A2 F1 F2 T1 T2 T3
1. Single-loop not acceptable
2. Secondary variable is measured
3. Indicates a key disturbance
4. Causal relationship, valve secondary
5. Secondary dynamics faster than primary
Lets use the
cascade design
rules!
Remember: The disturbance is the
heating medium inlet temperature and
the primary is AC-1.
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Class exercise: Design a cascade control structure to improve performance.
Lets use the
cascade design
rules!
Cascade design criteria A2 F1 F2 T1 T2 T3
1. Single-loop not acceptable Y Y Y Y Y Y
2. Secondary variable is measured Y Y Y Y Y Y
3. Indicates a key disturbance N N N N Y Y
4. Causal relationship, valve secondary N N Y N N Y
5. Secondary dynamics faster than primary N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Y
T3 satisfies all of the rules and can
be used as a secondary in a cascade.
T2 is the disturbance but
cannot be used in cascade!
feed
product
heating stream
packed bed
reactor
AC
1
TC
3
T
2
F
2
F
1
T
1
A
2
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
SP
1
from
person
SP
2
= MV
1

CV
2

MV
2

CV
1

primary
secondary
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Control Performance Comparison for Packed Bed Reactor
Single-Loop Cascade
0 100 200 300 400 500
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
IAE = 24.4229 ISE = 3.4639
C
V
1

0 100 200 300 400 500
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
IAE = 6.3309 ISE = 0.19017
Much better
performance!
WHY?
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Cascade Control Performance for Packed Bed Reactor
0 100 200 300 400 500
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
IAE = 6.3309 ISE = 0.19017
C
V
1

0 100 200 300 400 500
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
IAE = 37.2971 ISE = 18.6031
Time
C
V
2

0 100 200 300 400 500
0
1
2
3
4
SAM = 4.3428 SSM = 0.59949
Time
M
V

WHY?
Disturbance in
temperature is quickly
corrected.
This compensates for
the disturbance!
AC
TC
Valve adjustment
is not aggressive!
Disturbance affects
T sooner
feed
product
heating stream
packed bed
reactor
AC
1
TC
3
T
2
F
2
F
1
T
1
A
2
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
SP
1
from
person
SP
2
= MV
1
CV
2

MV
2
CV
1

primary
secondary
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
What have we gained and lost
using cascade control?
How does the system respond
to the following?
A disturbance in T1
A disturbance in heating medium inlet pressure
A disturbance in feed pressure
A disturbance to feed composition, A2
A change to the AC-1 set point
feed
product
AC
1
TC
3
T
2
F
2
F
1
T
1
A
2
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
SP
1
from
person
SP
2
= MV
1

CV
2

CV
1

SP
3
= MV
2

CV
3

No limit to number
of levels of cascade!
Each must
meet criteria.
MV
3

Three-Level Cascade!
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
Does cascade apply to instrumentation? Yes, a valve positioner is a secondary
that reduces effects of friction!!
TC
2
T
1
F
1
T
3
L
1
feed
product
heating stream
Valve positioner: Measures the
stem position and adjusts the air
pressure to (closely) achieve the
desired position. This is located
at the valve.
CHAPTER 14: CASCADE CONTROL
A cascade is a hierarchy, with
decisions transmitted from
upper to lower levels.
No communication flows up the
hierarchy.
What are advantages of a
hierarchy?
What information show be
transmitted up the hierarchy?
What information show flow
from secondary to primary in a
cascade?
Aksi Control Valve
Pertanyaan Tindakan apa yang kita
inginkan terhadap valve saat suplai
energinya gagal?
Jawabannya berkaitan dengan posisi
gagal (fail position) dari valve.
Pertimbangan utama: safety.

Fail Open (FO) atau Air-to-Close (AC)
Gambar berikut menunjukkan bahwa posisi awal
katup jenis ini adalah terbuka atau dengan kata lain,
bila tidak ada suplai udara (fail) maka katup terbuka
(open). Untuk menutupnya (close) diperlukan suplai
udara (air).

Fail Close (FC) atau Air-to-Open
(AO)
Gambar berikut menunjukkan bahwa posisi awal
katup jenis ini adalah tertutup atau dengan kata lain,
bila tidak ada suplai udara (fail) maka katup tertutup
(close). Untuk membukanya (open) diperlukan suplai
udara (air).

Pemilihan Valve
Pemilihannya tergantung prosesnya,
bahkan proses secara keseluruhan.
Contoh: Proses pemanasan yang baik
adalah menggunakan FC valve; tetapi
kalau fluida yang dipanasi itu berupa
polimer yang kalau pemanasnya mati
bisa terjadi solidasi maka yang aman
adalah menggunakan FO valve.

Kontroler
Kontroler adalah otak lup kontrol. Ia membuat
keputusan dalam sistem kontrol dengan
melakukan:
Membandingkan sinyal proses dari transmiter,
variabel yang dikontrol, dengan setpointnya.
Mengirim sinyal yang cocok ke control valve; atau
elemen kontrol akhir lainnya dalam rangka
menjaga variabel yang dikontrol pada setpoint-nya.

Aksi Kontroler
Ada 2 jenis aksi kontroler:
Aksi berlawanan (reverse action) atau
turun: bila harga output naik maka
kontroler mengurangi sinyal output
(udara tekan atau arus )-nya.
Aksi searah (direct action) atau naik:
sebaliknya.

Direct and Reverse Action
Contoh Aksi Kontroler
Pada HE bila digunakan jenis valve AO:
aksi berlawanan
Contoh Aksi Kontroler
Pada pengontrolan level bila menggunakan valve AO:
aksi searah; bila AC atau inputnya yang dikontrol
aksinya berlawanan.

Perbandingan PID
(Sumber: Coulson & Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 3)
Error
Proportional Controller
PI Controller
Response of PI
PID Controller
Integral Absolute Error (IAE)
Untuk mendapatkan IAE kecil
TUNING
Tuning Kontroler
Tuning RADIO
Gelombang
Suara
Tuning TV
Gelombang
Warna (kontras, brightness)
Suara
Tuning KONTROLER
Kc
T
I
T
D
PI
PID
P only
Process Step Testing: Prosedur
Kontroler disetel MANUAL, perubahan step yang
cukup besar pada sinyal keluaran kontroler m(t) (MV-
manipulated variable) dilakukan.
Respon sinyal keluaran transmitter c(t) dicatat pada
(kertas) recorder.
Hasil plot c(t) terhadap waktu (disebut process reaction
curve atau PRC) harus meliputi seluruh test dari awal
hingga mencapai kestabilan baru.
Model Testing in UniSim
Process Reaction Curve (PRC)
-5
5
15
25
35
45
i
n
p
u
t

v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

i
n

d
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n

(
%

o
p
e
n
)
-5
-1
3
7
11
15
o
u
t
p
u
t

v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

i
n

d
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n

(
K
)
0 10 20 30 40
time (min)
Metode 2
o
A
t u
t
o
=
=
A =
%
% %
) ( .
/
63
28 63
5 1
t
t t
K
p
0.63A
0.28A
t
63%

t
28%

Data diplotkan dalam variabel deviasi
First-Order Plus Deat Time
(FOPDT) Model
=

+1

Metode Ziegler-Nichols (PRC)
Controller Type
Propportional
Gain (Kc)
Integral
Time
(T
I
)
Derivative
Time
(T
D
)
Proportional only P
1

1

- -
Proportional-
Integral
PI
0.9

1

3.33 -
Proportional-
Integral-Derivative
PID
1.2

1

2.0 0.5
Metode LOPEZ
(Persamaan - Disturbance)
Kontroler PID (Lopez
Disturbance)
Metode LOPEZ
(Persamaan - Setpoint)
Kontroler PID (Lopez
Setpoint)
Metode Ziegler-Nichols
(Online)
Langkah-langkah percobaan
Set kontroler:
AUTOMATIK
Proporsional saja (T
i
maksimum, T
d
= 0)
Ubah-ubah harga K
c
atau PB (Proportional
Band = 100/K
c
) hingga responnya berosilasi
penuh atau siklik atau STABIL MARJINAL:
Kc yang didapatkan disebut K
cu
(ultimate
controller gain)
Hitung periode osilasinya (T
u
)
Stabilitas
STABIL
STABIL MARJINAL
TAK STABIL
Metode Ziegler-Nichols
(Online)
Tipe
Kontroler
Proportional
gain (K
c
)
Integral time
(T
I
)
Derivative
time (T
D
)
Proportional
only
P

2

- -
Proportional
-Integral
PI

2.2

1.2

-
Proportional
-Integral-
Derivative
PID

1.7

8

Setting Controller: PC-HP Sep
Process Variable Source : HP Sep Vessel Pressure
Output Target Object : FC-Alpha SP
Action :Reverse
PV Min : 5500 kPa
PV Max : 6900 kPa
Mode : Manual
OP : 35%
Kc : 3.0
Ti : 2.0 min
Td : biarkan kosong
Challenge 2
3 Kontroler pada Separator
Challenge 2 dan 3
Feed Stream
Valve VLV-100
Separator
Valve VLV-101
Valve VLV-102
FIC-100
LIC-100
PIC-100
Water Feed
Water Tank
Valve VLV-104
FIC-101
LIC-101
DYNAMIC DETAILS
Add 2 New Valves
Dynamic Pressure Specification: 1 & 2
Disain Kontrol CSTR
Bahan silakan unduh di SCELE