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Client Administration

Overview of Client
SAP R/3

c l i e n t u s e r

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200

300

Usr-1

Usr-2

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A client is an independent business unit within an R/3 system


It is the organizational and legal entity in the SAP system.

In a physical SAP system there can be multiple clients in each of the system of SAP system landscape. A client has its own set user data.

Overview of Client
The main objective of the client is to keep the data isolated
All the business management data is protected here because other clients can not access them. The data in a client can be only visible within that client; it can not be displayed or changed from another client.

Data in the R/3 are classified as Client-dependent & Client-independent.


When the SAP objects are just used by only one client, those are defined as client dependant data. For e.g. Users, Customizing etc. There are some objects as ABAP/4 programs, which are used by all the clients in a SAP system. Those objects are called client independent data.
To know whether a table is client dependant or independent you can search for a field MANDT. The client dependant tables always include the client field MANDT as a part of the primary key.

A three digit number identifies a client.


From a technical viewpoint, this number is used as a key within tables that contain application data.

SAP comes with some pre-configured clients.


With a standard installation, SAP delivers 000, 001 and 066 clients which should not be changed/deleted from the system. Client 000 is considered to be a SAP reference client and contains the clientindependent data of R/3. Special admin tasks are performed here as user SAP* or DDIC. Client 001 is a copy of client 000 with the difference being that the data is clientdependent. Do not change any settings here. It should remain standard.

Overview of Client

After a new installation both 000 and 001 clients are identical, but after an upgrade 000 will have additional customizing data. Lot of customer sites does not use 001 client at all. Client 066 is there for SAP Early Watch service. This client enables SAP to remotely access the customer system. SAP provides this service to the customer to improve the system performance. Client 066 should not be changed or deleted from the system. Apart from these 3 pre-configured clients, there could be some more clients from SAP depending upon the Add-on installed. For e.g. if IS-OIL is being installed, all the IS-OIL related activities are done through client 065.

Overview of Client
Customer-Defined Clients
During a SAP System implementation, many different clients might be required to fulfill different roles in the implementation procedure, depending upon the selected landscape .

Client
200 210 220 300 310 400 410

Name
CUST SAND TEST QTST TRNG PROD PPRD

Description
Customizing/Development Sandbox Customizing/Development Testing Quality Assurance Testing End-user Training Production Pre-Production

Overview of Client
Client 200: Customizing/Development (CUST)
All application customizing & system development are performed in this client. The system configuration of this client can be transported to TEST, QTST, TRNG, PPRD & PROD clients This client is the source of most of the clients in the development, quality assurance, and production environments.

Client 210: Sandbox (SAND)


This is a general test client, initially created as a copy of the 001 or 000. It is refreshed periodically with a copy of the customizing/development testing client (TEST) in a three-system landscape. In a one-system and two-system landscape the source client for refreshing the SAND is the quality assurance-testing client (QTST)

The entire implementation team has access to this client for experimentation and education.

Client 220: Customizing/Development Testing (TEST)


Copies of customizing changes are moved to this client (TEST) for unit testing. Used for testing the changes made in the customizing/development client (CUST). The person responsible for the customizing or development will perform the testing. In a 3 System Landscape the flow is like CUST TEST QTST In a 2 System Landscape the flow is like CUST QTST

Overview of Client
Client 300: Quality Assurance Testing (QTST)
Copies of customizing changes are moved here for system testing. The testing here is usually performed by a different team. The quality assurance team checks customizing, development, and SAP patches. This second level of testing ensures that everything has been successfully transported.

Client 310: End-user Training (TRNG)


End-users are trained on the R/3 functionality in this client. Once changes have been tested and signed-off in the quality assurance testing client (QTST), they can then be imported into this client.

Client 400: Production (PROD)


This client is used for the productive operation of the configured R/3 System. Before production work begins, the system must be loaded with master, transaction, and historical data.

Client 410: Pre-Production (PPRD)


Used by the project team to perform final testing of the customizing changes before they are transferred to the production client (PROD). This configuration allows the entering of master data and transaction data into the production system (PRD) to simulate the live environment.

Overview of Client
To create a client you have to maintain T000 table.
From the SAP R/3 version 3.0 onward, transaction code SCC4 can be used to maintain T000 table. Also you can choose Administration Client admin Client Maintenance from the initial screen to do the same.

Client creation
The 1st step to create a client is to define it & make it available in the R/3.
When the New Entry button is pressed, the following screen comes:

Client creation

In the Client creation screen all the required items must be filled.
The client number, name & City are entered first. Then Logical system is defined. SAP uses logical system concept in ALE (Application Link Enabling), workflow and EDI areas. Next entry standard currency can be defined according to the country. To enter a role of a client you must know the objective of that client beforehand. For example if this client will be used as a customizing client then customizing entry should be used from the options.

In the next field Changes and transports for client-specific objects, there are four options:
If you want to use this client as a sandbox client and you do not want to record or create a change request every time a change happens to the client then Changes W/O automatic recording is the right option. If all the changes to the client should be recorded in a change request then Automatic recording of changes is the right option. You must choose this option for your master configuration client. Contd ..

Client creation
If No changes allowed is chosen, then no changes will be allowed to this client. You must chose his option for clients in the production environment to protect your system.
No transport option is used when you do not want any user to create a transport from this client. The Client-independent object changes category determines if the client independent data maintenance is allowed in this new client. To choose the right option from this category, you must know the definition of Clint independent customizing objects and repository objects. The examples of SAP repository objects are data dictionary objects, module pools and screens. Client independent objects apply to all the clients. The factory calendar is an example of client independent object of customizing. The dropdown list contains following 4 options: Changes to Repository and cross-client customizing allowed No changes to cross-client customizing objects No changes to Repository objects No changes to Repository and cross-client customizing objects The next is Protection: Client copier and comparison tool. If this option is chosen, a client copy can not overwrite the newly created client. You should chose this option for a master-customizing client or for an important client as production. The 4 options are: Protection level 0: No restriction , Protection level 1: No overwriting & Protection level 2: No overwriting, no external availability Contd ..

Client creation
The access to the client can be further restricted by the following Check Boxes under Restrictions.
Allows CATT processes to be started: CATT(Computer Aided Test Tool) is a tool provided by SAP to test different functionality of the SAP system. SAP recommends for not to choose this option in production environment since it requires lot of system resources. Protection against SAP Upgrade: This option should be checked for a client that is used for backup purposes or client 066 (Early Watch client) that is used by SAP for customers SAP system performance.

Once a Client is saved an entry is made in the table T000.


When a new client is saved, no data is available in it. By default, user SAP* with password PASS is assigned to that client. You need this user to log on to the new client in order to copy data from other clients into it.

Client Copy
Client Copy is the mandatory first post-installation steps for filling up the data in newly created Clients. Some imp notes before scheduling a client copy:

For the stability of the system, always schedule the client copy in the nighttime when the users are not working in the system. To avoid data inconsistency the users should not keep on working in the source or target clients when the client copy is going on. For the best performance, always schedule the client copy in the background. The value of maximum online runtime parameter max_wp_run_time in the instance profile might need to be increased for a large client copy. Proper authorizations is required to run the client copy. As a basis system administrator you should have SAP_ALL profile to complete a client copy successfully. So SAP* is recommended as it has all the authorizations needed by the client copy. Always check the Tablespace usage % in database portion before & after executing a client copy and also at the time of Client Copy process. The main memory plays a significant role in the client copy. Make sure that you have enough memory to finish the client copy without any problem. If the client copy is locked by another client copy run, then check the log before deleting the lock entry in SM12 to remove the lock.

Client Copy
The Client Copy can be done in 3 ways
1. 2. Local Client Copy: Here the data is copied into new Client from a client within the same system. Remote Client Copy: In Remote copy the data is copied into the new client from a Remote system.

3.

Client Transport: Data can also be filled into the newly created client, from another system by way of Transport Request.

To do a Client Copy into the new client, first login into the new client as user SAP* with password PASS. Local Client Copy
For the Local copy follow the path: Tools Administration Administration Client Administration Client Copy Local Copy Alternatively, you can also use the Transaction Code SCCL for Local Client Copy.

Client Copy
5

1 2 3 4 1. Selected Profile

Client Copy
These are data profiles that R/3 provides for copying clients. These basically indicate what kind of data from the source you want to copy into the new client. The scope of the profile can be seen from the Menu path Profile Display

Client Copy
2.
3.

Source Client: Specify the Source client from where the Data will be copied.
Source Client user masters: you can define the client from which you want to copy the user master records. The Source Client User Master does not have to be same as source client. Test Run: By selecting this flag, you can get the information about the storage requirements or a complete table statistics. SAP recommend you to run the client copy using the test run mode first. In test run phase, database updates are not performed. Schedule as background job: The client copy should be scheduled in the background after all the parameters are selected as shown in the last figure. You can run a client copy online, if you are just copying the user master records.

4.

5.

When SAP_ALL profile is chosen for client copy, this information / warning popup screen comes which can be ignored.

Client Copy
Select the Background Server from the list. Normally it is the same system where the client copy is being performed.

Schedule job button is pressed

If all the info is correct press Continue

Client Copy
Select the client copy start time
Starts Immediately After a particular job Specify any existing Operation mode

Specify the Date & time

Select the Background processing event

Save after selecting the Start Time

Client Copy
Specify an existing Output device

Select the Printer from list

Click for Continue

Client Copy
Check the Client Copy Log

Press for Continue

If the Client Copy is started successfully check the progress by Client Copy Log. The path is Tools Administration

Administration Client Administration Copy Logs or by the Tr. code SCC3.

Client Copy
Re-starting the Client Copy
If the client copy fails for some reason then you can restart the client copy in the restart mode after the fixing the problems. In this case the client copy will start exactly from the same point where it failed.

Remote Client Copy


To do a Remote client copy, RFC connection must be established between the target system and the source system. RFC is Remote Function Call. It is a SAP interface protocol that simplifies the programming of communication processes between systems and manages the communication process, parameter transfer. The path for creating a new RFC connection follow the path: Tools Network RFC Destinations or by the transaction code SM59.

1. Select/Expand

2. Press to create

Client Copy

6. Test the new connection

5. Save the data after giving Gateway host

1. Enter the RFC Destination

2. Connection type should be 3 for R/3 3. Enter Description & then double-click to enter Target Host IP & Sys No

4. Give Logon Language, Client, User, Password

Client Copy
After setting up the RFC connection successfully, proceed with Remote Copy.
For the Remote client copy follow the path: Tools Administration Administration Client Administration Client Copy Remote Copy Or, you can also use the Transaction Code SCC9 for Remote Client Copy. 5 3

Client Copy
1. Selected Profile

2. 3. 4.

Source destination: Here enter the source RFC destination name which is created earlier. RFC system check: This is to check the entered RFC destination is properly functioning or not. Test Run: By selecting this flag, you can get the information about the storage requirements or a complete table statistics. In test run phase, database updates are not performed. Schedule as background job: The client copy should be scheduled in the background after all the parameters are selected as shown in the last figure.

5.

After performing all above mentioned tasks, see the copy progress by the transaction SCC3.

Client Copy
Client Transport
Also known as Client Export/Import. Client Copy by Transport Request is used when you have a client already created and you want to bring two clients at par with each other. Client Export / Import is another method of making a new client where in there is no remote access between the two clients

The following are the steps in the whole procedure:


First the data from the client in the source system is exported from the database to a transport file on hard disk. For this you need to know exactly what you want to transport and you use SAP delivered profiles accordingly.

the SAP delivered TP command is used for the import to the target system client database.

The post processing procedure is run the target client to successfully complete the client import.

Client Copy
To transport clients from one system to another, follow the path:
Tools Administration Administration Client admin Client transport Client export or by transaction SCC8. 3. Execute in Background

1. Select the predefined profile as per the requirements

2. Select the predefined profile

The Client Export progress can be viewed through SCC3.

Client Copy
After the Client Export procedure is completed, following files are created:
3 Transports are created in /usr/sap/trans/cofiles. Those are: <sid>KO<no> for the client-independent data (if selected). For example DEVKO00001. <sid>KT<no> for the client-specific data. For example DEVKT00001. <sid>KX<no> for the SAPscript objects as Texts and forms. For example DEVKX00001. Simultaneously the data export is also performed. The following data files will be created in /usr/sap/trans/data. Those are: RO<no>.<sid> for the client-independent data (if selected). For example RO00001. DEV. RT<no>.<sid> for the client-specific data. For example RT00001.DEV. RX<no>.<sid> for the SAPscript objects as Texts and forms. For example RX00001.DEV. Make sure that all the cofiles and the datafiles exist in the data and cofile directories before starting the import phase.

Client Copy
Performing Client Import
From the OS level, go to /usr/sap/trans/bin directory. The sequence of importing the client requests is Client Independent , Client Dependent and then Client Texts.

Client independent settings import


tp addtobuffer SIDKOnnnnn <SID> e.g. tp addtobuffer DEVKO00001 QAS tp import SIDKOnnnnn <SID> u8 e.g. tp import DEVKO00001 QAS u8

Client dependent setting import


tp addtobuffer SIDKTnnnnn <SID> e.g. tp addtobuffer DEVKT00001 QAS tp import SIDKTnnnnn <SID> client=XXX u8 e.g. tp import DEVKT00001 QAS client=100 u8

Client Texts import


tp addtobuffer SIDKXnnnnn <SID> e.g. tp addtobuffer DEVKX00001 QAS tp import SIDKXnnnnn <SID> client=XXX u8 e.g. tp import DEVKX00001 QAS client=100 u8

Here SID is SID of the server from which the client export was taken. <SID> is the SID of the server where the client import has to take place. u8 is the unconditional mode option. XXX is the 3 digit client number where you intent to copy.

Client Copy
Performing Post Processing job after Client Import
In order to adapt the runtime environment to the current state of the data, the post processing is done through: Tools Administration Administration Client admin Client transport client import or transaction SCC7.

Here the transport from the last tp import is proposed. Please check the transport number and if every thing is according to the order then press enter and that will take care of the post processing activities.

Deleting a Client
Delete a Client from SAP system
First log on to the client to be deleted with the proper authorization to delete a client. Choose path Tools Administration Client admin Special functions Delete client or transaction SCC5

Client deletion process can be done online or in background.

When the clients are to be deleted permanently, select this option. If you want to run a client delete process to find out information about all the tables that will be deleted then it is the right option to use. After the client deletion process starts you can use SCC3 log entries to check the client deletion process.

Deleting a Client
Delete a Client using R3trans
In all the SAP releases so far you can use R3trans to delete a client. We have seen significant timesaving in this way of deleting a client. The steps are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Log on to the system as an admin. Go to the /usr/sap/trans/bin directory. use a standard editor and create a control file(e.g. delcli.ctl) with the following text: clientremove client = XXX select* 4. then run the command at the command prompt: R3trans -w delcli.log -u 1 delcli.ctl [e.g. client = 999]

Here delcli.log is the name of the log file & delcli.ctl is the name of the created control file .