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BY

R.GIRITHARAN
Power supplies
provide the
necessary power,
voltage and current
requirements for
electronic devices.
They usually change
ac to dc voltage.
For example, 230 volts
ac is changed to 12
volts dc.

Power Supplies
Consist of:
1. Transformer steps ac voltage up or
down.
2. Rectifier Diodes change ac to dc.
3. Filter Network includes capacitors and
inductors, smooths out the DC.
4. Voltage Regulator keeps the voltage
constant.

u
V
m
0
t 2t
4
Power supply is a circuit that provides a steady dc voltage obtained by rectifying the
ac voltage. The following is the block diagram of a power supply stage.
Step-down
transformer
High ac
voltage
Rectifier
Low ac
voltage
Ripple
Filter
High ripple
dc voltage
Voltage
regulator
Low ripple
dc voltage
Load using
dc voltage
Pure constant
dc voltage
u
V
m
0 t 2t
u
0
t 2t
u
V
m
0
t 2t
V
dc
u 0
t 2t
V
dc
Transformer
The input coil is primary and output coil
is secondary.
The transformer operates only ac
supply.




The input voltage is 230V ac and
output voltage is step down 16V
ac.
Power Supply Specifics
Half Wave Full Wave Rectifier
Power Supply Specifics
Bridge Rectifier
Rectifier
Comparison
Rectifier
The are several ways of connecting a diode
to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC.
The bridge rectifier is important and its
produce a full wave varying dc output.
The bridge rectifier made four individual
diodes, but it always available in special
package containing the four diode required.
The bridge rectifier uses 1.4V because each
diode uses 0.7V.

Bridge Rectifier Construction

Important Concepts
Half Wave Rectifier:
Simplest.
Hard to filter well.
Full Wave Rectifier:
Easier to filter.
Requires transformer with center-tap.
Transformer secondary must be twice intended
voltage.
Bridge Rectifier:
Easier to filter (just like full wave).
Center-tap transformer not required.
Transformer secondary same as intended voltage.
Higher parts count.
Filter


To smooth the output of the rectifier a
reservoir
Capacitor is used placed across the output of
the rectifier and in parallel with the load.
The capacitor having only two function
charging and discharing.
This capacitor charges up when the voltage
from the rectifier rises above that of the
capacitor and then as rectifier voltage falls,
the capacitor provides the required current
from stored its stored charge.
The output from the transformer and rectifiers follows the sin
waveform.

The smoothing capacitor fills in the low voltage portions, so reducing
the ripple voltage amplitude.

The larger the capacitor (for a given load), the smaller the ripple
voltage, but the higher the peak current through the rectifiers.
Construction and waveform
POSITIVE variable regulator
NEGATIVE variable regulator
These regulators function by maintaining a fixed level of 1.25V between the
OUT and ADJ terminals and by ensuring that the current drawn by the ADJ
terminal is very small. Provided the current through the potential divider from
the output to the ground rail is large compared to the ADJ terminal, then the
regulated output voltage is set by the resistors used for the potential divider.
The recommended maximum resistor value between the ADJ terminal and the
OUT terminal is 240O for the positive version (220O is OK) and 120O for the
negative version.

You want +12V out. R1 = 220O, so current through R1 = 1.25V/220O =
5.68mA
V across R2 is 12V 1.25V = 10.75V, so R2 = 10.75V/5.68mA = 1.892KO
which could be 1.8kO + 100O = 1.9kO. This will give an output of 10.792V +
1.25V = 12.042V.
Regulator

A regulator is used vary the output voltage.
Here LM317 is used to vary the output
voltage1.7V to 32V
Regulator construction
EE2603-14
Electronic Circuit Analysis 18
Adjustable Voltage Regulator IC
The IC regulator LM317 can be used to produce any regulated output voltage
between 1.2V to 37V. Typical IC values are: V
ref
= 1.25V and I
adj
= 100mA
Adjustable Voltage regulator IC

1.2V < V
o
< 37V
-V
i
V
IN
V
OUT
ADJ

LM317
R
1
R
2
I
adj
= 100A
V
ref
=
1.25V
( )
2 adj
1
2
ref 2
1
ref
ref 2 adj 1 R ref 2 R 1 R o
R I
R
R
1 V R
R
V
V R I I V V V V +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + + = + =
2
1
2
o
R A 100
R
R
1 V 25 . 1 V +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
n:1+1
V
ac
=220V
f=50Hz
V
max
V
max
C
1
I
dc