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Current Transformers

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June 2005
Alan Wixon
Senior Applications Engineer
> Current Transformers January 2004 3 3
Current Transformer Function
Reduce power system current to lower value for
measurement.

Insulate secondary circuits from the primary.

Permit the use of standard current ratings for secondary
equipment.
REMEMBER :
The relay performance DEPENDS on the C.T which
drives it !
> Current Transformers January 2004 4 4
Instrument Transformer Standards
IEC IEC 185:1987 CTs
IEC 44-6:1992 CTs
IEC 186:1987 VTs

EUROPEAN BS 7625 VTs
BS 7626 CTs
BS 7628 CT+VT

BRITISH BS 3938:1973 CTs
BS 3941:1975 VTs

AMERICAN ANSI C51.13.1978 CTs and VTs

CANADIAN CSA CAN3-C13-M83 CTs and VTs

AUSTRALIAN AS 1675-1986 CTs

> Current Transformers January 2004 5 5
Polarity
P2 P1
I
s

S2 S1
I
p

Inst. Current directions :-

P1 P2
S1 S2 Externally
> Current Transformers January 2004 6 6
Flick Test
P1
S1
+
V
-
S2
P2
I
s

I
p

FWD kick on application,
REV kick on removal of
test lead.

Battery (6V) + to P1
AVO +ve lead to S1
> Current Transformers January 2004 7 7
Basic Theory
> Current Transformers January 2004 8 8
Basic Theory (1)
I
P

I
S

R

1 Primary Turn
N Secondary Turns

For an ideal transformer :-

PRIMARY AMPERE TURNS = SECONDARY AMPERE TURNS
I
P
= N x I
S

> Current Transformers January 2004 9 9
Basic Theory (2)
I
P

I
S

R
E
S


For I
S
to flow through R there must be some potential -
E
S
= the E.M.F.

E
S
= I
S
x R

E
S
is produced by an alternating flux in the core.

E
S
d
dt
> Current Transformers January 2004 10 10
Basic Theory (3)
I
P

N
P

N
S

E
K

I
S

Z
B

Z
CT


V
O/P
= I
S
Z
B
= E
K
- I
S
Z
CT

> Current Transformers January 2004 11 11
Basic Formulae
Circuit Voltage Required :

E
S
= I
S
(Z
B
+ Z
CT
+ Z
L
) Volts
where :-

I
S
= Secondary Current of C.T. (Amperes)

Z
B
= Connected External Burden (Ohms)

Z
CT
= C.T Winding Impedance (Ohms)

Z
L
= Lead Loop Resistance (Ohms)

Require E
K
> E
S

> Current Transformers January 2004 12 12
Low Reactance Design
With evenly distributed winding the leakage
reactance is very low and usually ignored.

Thus Z
CT
~ R
CT

> Current Transformers January 2004 13 13
Knee-Point Voltage Definition
I
ek

+10% V
k

+50% I
ek

V
k

Exciting Current (I
e
)
E
x
c
i
t
i
n
g

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
S
)

> Current Transformers January 2004 14 14
C.T. Equivalent Circuit
Z
b

N
P
1

Z
CT

S
1

V
t
Z
e

I
s

I
p

I
p/N

I
e

E
s

I
p
= Primary rating of C.T. I
e
= Secondary excitation current
N = C.T. ratio I
s
= Secondary current
Z
b
= Burden of relays in ohms E
s
= Secondary excitation voltage
(r+jx) V
t
= Secondary terminal voltage
Z
CT
= C.T. secondary winding across the C.T. terminals
impedance in ohms (r+jx)
Z
e
= Secondary excitation
impedance in ohms (r+jx)

> Current Transformers January 2004 15 15
Phasor Diagram
I
c
E
p

I
p/N

I
e

I
s

I
e

I
m

E
s

u
E
p
= Primary voltage I
m
= Magnetising current
E
s
= Secondary voltage I
e
= Excitation current
u = Flux I
p
= Primary current
I
c
= Iron losses (hysteresis & I
s
= Secondary current
eddy currents)
> Current Transformers January 2004 16 16
Saturation
> Current Transformers January 2004 17 17
Steady State Saturation (1)
100A
100/1
1A
E
1 ohm
E =
1V
100A
100/1
1A
E
10
ohm
E =
10V
100A
100/1
1A
E
100
ohm
E =
100V
100A
100/1
1A
E
1000
ohm
E = ?
> Current Transformers January 2004 18 18
Steady State Saturation (2)
Time
+V
-V
0V
A
u
Assume :- Zero residual flux
Switch on at point A
> Current Transformers January 2004 19 19
Steady State Saturation (3)
Time
+V
-V
0V
C
u
Assume :- Zero residual flux
Switch on at point C
> Current Transformers January 2004 20 20
Steady State Saturation (4)
Time
+V
-V
0V
B
u
Assume :- Zero residual flux
Switch on at point B
> Current Transformers January 2004 21 21
Steady State Saturation (5)
Mag Core
Saturation
+V
-V
0V
Mag Core
Saturation
Time
> Current Transformers January 2004 22 22
Steady State Saturation (6)
u
Time
+V
-V
0V
+V
-V
0V
Mag Core
Saturation
Mag Core
Saturation
Output lost due to
steady state
saturation
Actual Output
Voltage
Prospective
Output Voltage
> Current Transformers January 2004 23 23
Transient Saturation
L
1

R
1

Z
1

i
1

v = V
M

sin (wt + o)
v = V
M

sin (wt + o)
TRANSIENT STATE STEADY
e . ) - ( sin - ) - (wt sin
e . ) - ( sin
Z
V
) - (wt sin
Z
V
i
1
L / t
1
R -
1 1
1
L / t
1
R -
1
M
1
M
1
+ =
C I C + I + =
C = C + + =
o o
o o

1
M
1
1
1
1 -
1
2
1 1
Z
V

R
wL
tan
L w R Z - : where
= I
= C
+ =

2 2
> Current Transformers January 2004 24 24
Transient Saturation : Resistive Burden
FLUX
CURRENT
Primary Current
Secondary Current
Actual Flux
Mag Current
Required Flux

SAT

0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 M
> Current Transformers January 2004 25 25
CT Types
> Current Transformers January 2004 26 26
Current Transformer Function
Two basic groups of C.T.

Measurement C.T.s
Limits well defined

Protection C.T.s
Operation over wide range of currents

Note : They have DIFFERENT characteristics
> Current Transformers January 2004 27 27
Measuring C.T.s
B
Protection C.T.
Measuring C.T.
H
Measuring C.T.s
Require good accuracy up to
approx 120% rated current.
Require low saturation level to
protect instruments, thus use
nickel iron alloy core with low
exciting current and knee
point at low flux density.
Protection C.T.s
Accuracy not as important as
above.
Require accuracy up to many
times rated current, thus use
grain orientated silicon steel
with high saturation flux
density.
> Current Transformers January 2004 28 28
Current Transformer Ratings
> Current Transformers January 2004 29 29
Current Transformer Ratings (1)
Rated Burden

Value of burden upon which accuracy claims are based
Usually expressed in VA
Preferred values :-
2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA

Continuous Rated Current

Usually rated primary current

Short Time Rated Current

Usually specified for 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 secs
No harmful effects
Usually specified with the secondary shorted

Rated Secondary Current

Commonly 1, 2 or 5 Amps
> Current Transformers January 2004 30 30
Current Transformer Ratings (2)
Rated Dynamic Current

Ratio of :-
I
PEAK
: I
RATED

(I
PEAK
= Maximum current C.T. can withstand without
suffering any damage).

Accuracy Limit Factor - A.L.F.
(or Saturation Factor)

Ratio of :-
I
PRIMARY
: I
RATED

up to which the C.T. rated accuracy is maintained.

e.g. 200 / 1A C.T. with an A.L.F. = 5 will maintain its
accuracy for I
PRIMARY
< 5 x 200 = 1000 Amps

> Current Transformers January 2004 31 31
Choice of Ratio
Clearly, the primary rating
I
P
> normal current in the circuit
if thermal (continuous) rating is not to be exceeded.
Secondary rating is usually 1 or 5 Amps (0.5 and 2 Amp
are also used).
If secondary wiring route length is greater than 30
metres - 1 Amp secondaries are preferable.
A practical maximum ratio is 3000 / 1.
If larger primary ratings are required (e.g. for large
generators), can use 20 Amp secondary together with
interposing C.T.
e.g. 5000 / 20 - 20 / 1
> Current Transformers January 2004 32 32
Current Transformer Designation
Class P
Specified in terms of :-
i) Rated burden
ii) Class (5P or 10P)
iii) Accuracy limit factor (A.L.F.)
Example :-
15 VA 10P 20
To convert VA and A.L.F. into useful volts
V
useful
~ VA x ALF
I
N


> Current Transformers January 2004 33 33
BS 3938
Classes :- 5P, 10P. X
Designation (Classes 5P, 10P)
(Rated VA) (Class)
(ALF)

Multiple of rated current (I
N
) up to which declared
accuracy will be maintained with rated burden
connected.
5P or 10P.
Value of burden in VA on which accuracy claims
are based.
(Preferred values :- 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA)
Z
B
= rated burden in ohms
= Rated VA
I
N
2

> Current Transformers January 2004 34 34
Interposing CT
> Current Transformers January 2004 35 35
Interposing CT
N
P

N
S
Z
B

Z
CT

LINE
CT
Burden presented to line CT
= Z
CT
+ Z
B
x N
P
2
N
S
2

> Current Transformers January 2004 36 36
Seen by main ct :- 0.1 + (1)
2
(2 x 0.5 + 0.4 + 1) = 0.196O
(5)
Burden on main ct :- I
2
R
= 25 x 0.196 = 4.9VA
Burden on a main ct of required ratio :-





Total connected burden = 2 x 0.5 + 1 = 2O
Connected VA = I
2
R
= 2
The I/P ct consumption was about 3VA.
NEG. 1A
0.1O 0.1O 0.4O 1VA @ 1A
1.0O
R
0.5O
5A
500/5
0.5O
R
1.0O 500/1
> Current Transformers January 2004 37 37
Current Transformer Designation
> Current Transformers January 2004 38 38
Current Transformer Designation
Class X

Specified in terms of :-

i) Rated Primary Current

ii) Turns Ratio (max. error = 0.25%)

iii) Knee Point Voltage

iv) Mag Current (at specified voltage)

v) Secondary Resistance (at 75C)
> Current Transformers January 2004 39 39
Choice of Current Transformer
Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays
Class P Specification
A.L.F. = 5 usually sufficient
For high settings (5 - 15 times C.T rating)
A.L.F. = relay setting

IDMT Overcurrent Relays
Generally Class 10P
Class 5P where grading is critical

Note : A.L.F. X V.A < 150

Differential Protection
Class X Specification
Protection relies on balanced C.T output
> Current Transformers January 2004 40 40
Selection Example
> Current Transformers January 2004 41 41
Burden on Current Transformers
R
CT

R
CT

R
CT

I
F

I
F

R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L

R
r
R
r
R
r

R
r

R
CT

R
CT

R
CT

I
F

I
F

R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L

R
r
R
r
R
r

R
r

1. Overcurrent : R
CT
+ R
L
+ R
r
2. Earth : R
CT
+ 2R
L
+ 2R
r

> Current Transformers January 2004 42 42
Overcurrent Relay V
K
Check
Assume values : I
f max
= 7226 A R
CT
= 0.26 O
C.T = 1000 / 5 A R
r
= 0.02 O
7.5 VA 10P 20 R
L
= 0.15 O

Check to see if V
K
is large enough :
Required voltage = V
S
= I
F
(R
CT
+ R
r
+ R
L
)
= 7226 x 5 (0.26 + 0.02 + 0.15) = 36.13 x 0.43 = 15.54 Volts
1000

Current transformer V
K
approximates to :-
V
K
O VA x ALF + R
CT
x I
N
x ALF
I
n
= 7.5 x 20 + 0.26 x 5 x 20 = 56 Volts
5

V
K
> V
S
therefore C.T V
K
is adequate
> Current Transformers January 2004 43 43
Earth Fault Relay V
K
Check
Assume values : As per overcurrent.

Note For earth fault applications require to be able to pass
10 x relay setting.

Check to see if V
K
is large enough : V
K
= 56 Volts

Total load connected = 2R
L
+ R
CT
+ 2R
r

= 2 x 0.15 + 0.26 + 2 x 0.02

Maximum secondary current
= 56 = 93.33A
0.6

Typical earth fault setting = 30% I
N

= 1.5A

Therefore C.T can provide > 60 x setting

C.T V
K
is adequate

> Current Transformers January 2004 44 44
Voltage Transformers
> Current Transformers January 2004 45 45
Voltage Transformers
Provides isolation from high voltages

Must operate in the linear region to prevent
accuracy problems - Do not over specify VT

Must be capable of driving the burden, specified by
relay manufacturer

Protection class VT will suffice


> Current Transformers January 2004 46 46
Typical Working Points on a B-H Curve
Flux Density
B
Magnetising Force
AT/m
Cross C.T.s & Power Transformers
Saturation
V.T.s
Protection C.T. (at full load)
H
1000 2000 3000
1.6





1.0








0.5
Tesla
> Current Transformers January 2004 47 47
Types of Voltage Transformers
Two main basic types are available:

Electromechanical VT`s
Similar to a power transformer
May not be economical above 132kV

Capacitor VT`s (CVT)
Used at high voltages
Main difference is that CVT has a
capacitor divider on the front end.
> Current Transformers January 2004 48 48
Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer
Z
B
(burden)
N
P
/ N
S

= K
n

V
P

R
P

I
P

L
P

L
M

I
M

I
C

R
e

V
S

E
P
= E
S
I
e

R
S

I
S

L
S

> Current Transformers January 2004 49 49
Basic Circuit of a Capacitor V.T.
C
1
C
2
V
P
V
C2
V
i
L

T

V
S
Z
B
> Current Transformers January 2004 50 50
Ferro-resonance
The exciting impedance of auxiliary transformer T and the
capacitance of the potential divider form a resonant circuit.

May oscillate at a sub normal frequency

Resonant frequency close to one-third value of system
frequency

Manifests itself as a rise in output voltage, r.m.s. value
being 25 to 50 per cent above normal value

Use resistive burden to dampen the effect


> Current Transformers January 2004 51 51
VT Earthing
Primary Earthing
Earth at neutral point
Required for phase-ground measurement at relay

Secondary Earthing
Required for safety
Earth at neutral point
When no neutral available - earth yellow phase
(VERY COMMON)
No relevance for protection operation
> Current Transformers January 2004 52 52
VT Construction
5 Limb
Used when zero sequence measurement is
required (primary must also be earthed)
Three Single Phase
Used when zero sequence measurement is
required (primary must also be earthed)
3 Limb
Used where no zero sequence measurement is
required
V Connected (Open Delta)
No yellow phase
Cost effective
Two phase-phase voltages
No ground fault measurement

> Current Transformers January 2004 53 53
VT Connections
a b c

a b c

A B C N

da

dn

a b c n

V Connected

Broken Delta

> Current Transformers January 2004 54 54
VT Construction - Residual
Used to detect earthfault
Useful where current operated protection cannot be
used
Connect all secondary windings in series
Sometimes referred to as `Broken Delta`
Residual Voltage is 3 times zero sequence voltage
VT must be 5 Limb or 3 single phase units
Primary winding must be earthed

> Current Transformers January 2004 55 55
Voltage Factors Vf
Vf is the upper limit of operating voltage.

Important for correct relay operation.

Earthfaults cause displacement of system neutral,
particularly in the case of unearthed or impedance
earthed systems.


> Current Transformers January 2004 56 56
Protection of VTs
H.R.C. Fuses on primary side

Fuses may not have sufficient interrupting capability

Use MCB