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Role of quality in Cutting

Various factors that can affect spreading should be checked, such as ply alignment, ply tension or slackness, bowing and splicing.

Spreading defects are:

Not enough plies to cover the quantity of garments required. Narrow fabric Plies not all facing in the correct direction. That is, no t all the plies are spread face down, face up, or face to face as required. Mismatching of checks. Plies not spread accurately one above another ready for cutting.

Defects in Marker
Pattern parts missing Mixed parts. Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics. Patterns not all facing in the same direction on one way fabric. Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. As a result a garment may not drape or fit properly Line definitions poor leading to inaccurate cutting. Skimpy marking Generous marking Marker too wide Not enough knife clearance freedom. Mismatched checks and stripes Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct, or misplaced

Defects in Cutting
Frayed edges: may impede cutting time by clogging the knife action and /or mark the fabric with rips or pulled yarns. The amount of fraying depends on fabric construction and finish. Improper cutting tools or dull knives cause excessive fraying in a pattern as the section is cut.

Fussy, Ragged, or Serrated edges: the result of poor cutting implements. Such edges will impede swing and /or diminish sewing quality. Such a condition is caused by faulty knife edges such as burrs, chips or dullness. Ply-to-Ply fusion: More common and troublesome. Adjacent plies in a block are fused together, which makes it difficult for the sewing machine operator to pick up a single ply quickly Fusion occurs due to heat created by excessive high speed of cutting or by the friction of a dull knife. To prevent fusion check knife speed, keep knifes sharp, place wax paper between fabric plies, and lubricate cutting blade. Single-edge fusion: consists of a single ply whose cut yarn ends are fused to form a hard brittle rim on the cut edge. Some times, this is desirable to prevent fraying however, hardness and brittleness are undesirable if they impede sewing manipulation or may result in seams uncomfortable to the consumer.

Pattern precision: Misshape or distortion of the pattern perimeter as cut. Whether it is under over cut is due to the poor manual control of the cutting machine and poor lines on the marker. To assure precision in a pattern, check markers before cutting, use tensionless spreading, or allow time for the fabric to relax. After a cut, check the top, bottom and middle plies against the pattern. Notches: Notches size refers to the depth of a notch. If the depth is too great, the notch may show after a garment is sewn. If the notches are too small, sewing operators may have difficulty locating them quickly, resulting in decreased efficiency. Misplacement of a notch may be due to an improper spread marker, poor control of a cutting machine with the cutters notching tool stroking diagonally instead of vertically, incorrect marker in that the notches for mating parts do not coincide. Check notch placement against matching pieces. QC in stitching may be a problem if notches are aligned.

Drilling: The drill hole may be too large or too small in diameter. In addition, a drill may become too hot due to high speed or wrong size, causing the plies t fuse together at the drill hole the drill must stroke vertically to the table for uniform placement throughout the bundle. Sometimes fabric properties are such that the slight movement of yarns in a fabric would close a drill hole. In such cases, it is necessary to drill holes with a marking fluid. The drill used for such a purpose is hollow and carries. Marking fluid that is deposited at the drill point on the fabric as the needle is withdrawn. Such marks should last long enough so that further processing can be finished without difficulty, but should be easily removable after processing or in case of an error.

There is nothing much that can be done visually on interlinings. The performance testing of interlinings as well as the control of variables in the fusing of interlinings are of outmost importance.

Testing of Fusible Interlinings

The purpose of fusible interlinings is to give shape or form and improve the aesthetics of a garment. The best way to test fusible interlining other than to actually fuse the interlining with the end-item fabric and evaluate such samples before starting mass production.

3 samples of 12X12 of End item fabric to be cut and fused to 9X9 interlining. Pieces of fusible interlining at the recommended time, temperature and pressure. (by fusible interlining supplier/manufacturer). Than these three specimens are checked for compatibility, shrinkage, and bond strength.

Compatibility: means that the fusible interlining material should provide good drapability, bulk and support without altering the natural hand of the end-item (shell) fabric. Shrinkage: can be measured by placing gauge marks on the interlining and shell fabric before fusing and measuring the distance between these guage marks after fusing. Any significant shrinkage of the interlining fabric would result in noticeable bubbled appearance on the right side of the Shell. Bond strength: can be determined by using the standard method of testing bonded and laminated appearel fabric.

Other fusing Tests and Defects

Laundering and dry cleaning according to the care instructions of the end item. To evaluate fusing performance for defects such as bubbling, cracking, de-lamination, etc

Three controllable variables in the fussing process

Three controllable variables in fussing process are time, temperature, and pressure. If pressure is not sufficient the bonds will not sustain themselves in washing and/or drycleaning If too much pressure is applied a strike through on lightweight fabrics (adhesive showing through the fabric is possible, but most circumstances, a change in hand (increased boardiness) will result.

In many cases with the new high performance resins that are used today, the introduction of too little or too much heat may affect the hand or drapability of a garment, although it might not drastically alter bond strength.

In-process Inspection
In-process inspection means the inspection of parts before they are assembled into a complete product. In apparel manufacturing, this means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading fabric to pressing/finishing. The idea behind this is to inspect the quality of component parts as close to manufacturing as possible and there by identify the source of quality problems as early in the manufacturing process as possible.

Advantages of in-process inspection

Reduction of major surprises from the customers due to bad quality. Decrease in labor cost due to a decrease in repair rates
The operators and supervisors are constantly reminded that the company has a specific quality level to meet, Because each worker will realize that his/her work is subject to being inspected at any time throughout the day the quality of work produced by workers will improve. The data obtained can be effectively analyzed and utilized by the production supervisors and plant managers in correcting problems or improving quality.