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UNIT-6

INTRODUCTION
POLLING INTERRUPTS INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINR(ISR)

INTERRUPT STRUCTURE OF 8086


SUPPORTS 256 INTERRUPTS SOURCES OF INTERRUPTS
INTERRUPT FROM EXTERNAL SIGNAL APPLIED TO TWO HARDWARE PINS INTR AND NMI (HARDWARE INTERRUPTS

INTERRUPT GENERATED BY EXECUTING AN INTERRUPT INSTRUCTION S/W OR INTERNAL INTERRUPT


INTERRUPT BY AN ERROR CONDITION PRODUCED BY EXECUTING AN INSTRUCTION (INTERNAL ERRORS)

INTERRUPT RESPONSE
1. 2. 3. 8086 COMPLETES THE EXECUTION OF CURRENT INSTRUCTION CHECKS THE SOURCE OF INTERRUPT. IF IT IS DUE TO INTR GO TO NEXT STEP ELSE GO TO STEP 5 CHECKS THE INTERRUPT FLAG.IF ITS SET GO TO NEXT STEP ELSE EXECUTE NEXT INSTRUCTION _____ IT ACKS INTRRUPT BY SENDING INTA SIGNAL TO THE DEVICE. _____ IT READS INTERRUPT TYPE GIVEN BY THE DEVICE DURING SECOND INTA SIGNAL IT PUSHES THE FLAG REGISTER TO STACK AND DECREMENTS STACK POINTER BY 2 IT CLEARS INTERRUPT FLAG AND TRAP FLAG IT SAVES RETURN ADDRESS BY PUSHING THE CS,DEC SP BY 2,PUSH IP TO STACK,DEC SP BY 2 TRANSFERS CONTROL TO START OF ISR. ADDRESS OF ISR IS TAKEN FROM IVT BASED ON WHICH OF THE 256 INTERRUPTS IS SERVICED AT THE END OF ISR, IRET HAS TO BE EXECUTED POPS IP INC SP BY 2,POPS CS,INC SP BY 2 IT POPS EFLAGS INC SP BY 2 TRANSFERS CONTROL BACK TO THE PROGRAM WHICH WAS INTERRUPTED

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

FLOWCAHRT FOR INTERRUPT RESPONSE SEQUENCE


MAIN PROGRAM

INTERRUPT NO

IS DUE TO INTR YES NO IF =1

PUSH EFLAGS CLEAR IF & TF PUSH CS &IP GO TO ISR

ISR YES INTERRUPT ACK CYCLE

READ INTERRUPT TYPE

POP IP POP CS POP FLAG REGISTER

IRET

INTERRUPT VECTOR TABLE

8086 INTERRUPT TYPES


256 INTERRUPTS OF 8086 ARE DIVIDED IN TO 3 GROUPS

1.

TYPE 0 TO TYPE 4 INTERRUPTSTHESE ARE USED FOR FIXED OPERATIONS AND HENCE ARE CALLED DEDICATED INTERRUPTS TYPE 5 TO TYPE 31 INTERRUPTS NOT USED BY 8086,RESERVED FOR HIGHER PROCESSORS LIKE 80286 80386 ETC TYPE 32 TO 255 INTERRUPTS AVAILABLE FOR USER,CALLED USER DEFINED INTERRUPTS THESE CAN BE H/W INTERRUPTS AND ACTIVATED THROUGH INTR LINE OR CAN BE S/W INTERRUPTS

2.

3.

TYPE 0 DIVIDE ERROR INTERRUPT


QUOTIENT IS LARGE CANT BE FIT IN AL/AX OR DIVIDE BY ZERO

TYPE 1 SINGLE STEP INTERRUPT


USED FOR EXECUTING THE PROGRAM IN SINGLE STEP MODE BY SETTING TRAP FLAG TO SET TRAP FLAG PUSHF MOV BP,SP OR [BP+0],0100H;SET BIT8 POPF

TYPE 2 NON MASKABLE INTERRUPT


THIS INTERRUPT IS USED FOR EXECUTING ISR OF NMI PIN (POSITIVE EGDE SIGNAL). NMI CANT BE MASKED BY S/W

TYPE 3 BREAK POINT INTERRUPT


USED FOR PROVIDING BREAK POINTS IN THE PROGRAM

TYPE 4 OVER FLOW INTERRUPT


USED TO HANDLE ANY OVERFLOW ERROR AFTER SIGNED ARITHMETIC

PRIORITY OF INTERRUPTS

INTERRUPT TYPE
INT0,INT3-INT 255,INTO

PRIORITY
HIGHEST

NMI(INT2)

INTR

SINGLE STEP

LOWEST

DOS INTERRUPTS
1. FUNCTION CALL 01: READ THE KEY BOARD INPUT PARAMETER AH = 01 READ A CHARACTER FROM KEYBOARD. ECHO IT ON CRO SCREENAND RETURN THE ASCII CODE OF THE KEY PRESSEDIN AL OUTPUT PARAMETER: AL = ASCII CODE OF CHARACTER 2. FUNCTION CALL 02H: DISPLAY ON CRT SCREEN INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 02 DL = ASCII CHARACTER TO BE DISPLAYED ON CRT SCREEN 3. FUNCTION CALL 03: READ CHARACTER FROM COM1 INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 03H FUNCTION: READS DATA FROM COM PORT OUTPUT PARAMETER: AL = ASCII CODE OF CHARACTER

4. FUNCTION CALL 04: WRITE CHARACTER TO COM1 INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 04H DL = ASCII CODE OF CHARACTER TO BE TRANSMITTED FUNCTION: WRITES DATA TO COM PORT

4. FUNCTION CALL 05: WRITE TO LPT1 INPUT PARAMETER: Al = 05H DL = ASCII CODE OF CHARACTER TO BE PRINTTED FUNCTION: PRINT THE CHARACTER AVAILABLE IN DL ON PRINTER ATTACHED TO LPT1

DOS INTERRUPTS
FUNCTION CALL 09: DISPLAY A CHARACTER STRING INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 09,DS:DX= ADDRESS OF CHARACTER STRING FUNCTION: DISPLAYS THE CHARACTERS AVAILABLE IN THE STRING TO CRT TILL A $ FUNCTION CALL 0AH: BUFFERED KEY BOARD INPUT INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 0AH DS:DX = ADDRESS OF KEYBOARD INPUT BUFFER FUNCTION: THE ASCII CODES OF THE CHARACTERS RECEIVED FROM KEYBOARD ARE STORED IN KEYBOARD BUFFER FROM 3RD BYTE. 1ST BYTE OF BUFFER = SIZE OF BUFFER UPTO 255. IT RECEIVES THE CHARACTERS TILL SPECIFIED NO.OF CHARACTERS ARE RECEIVED OR ENTER KEY IS PRESSES WHICH EVER IS EARLIER

BIOS INTERRUPTS
INT 10H: VIDEO SERVICE INPERRUPT IT CONTROLS THE VEDIO DISPLAY (a) FUNCTION CALL 00: SELECT VEDIO MODE INPUT PARAMETER: AL = MODE NUMBER AH = 00H FUNCTION: IT CHANGES THE DISPLAY MODE AND CLEARS THE SCREEN AL = 00 40 X 25 BLACK AND WHITE AL = 04 320 X 200 COLOR AL = 10H 640 X 350 X 16 COLOR (b) FUNCTION CALL 03: READ CURSOR POSITION INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 03 BH = PAGE NUMBER FUNCTION: READS CURSOR POSITION ON SCREEN OUTPUT PARAMETERS: CH = STARTING LINE CL = ENDING LINE DH = CURRENT ROW DL = CURRENT COLUMN

BIOS INTERRUPTS
( C) FUNCTION CALL 0E: WRITE CHARACTER ON CRT SCREEN AND ADVANCE CURSOR INPUT PARAMETER: AH = 0EH AL = ASCII CODE OF THE CHARACTER BH = PAGE(TEXT MODE) BL = COLOR(GRAPHICS) FUNCTION: DISPLAY CHARACTER AVAILABLE IN AL ON SCREEN INT 11H: DETERMINE THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT INSTALLED. REGISTER AX SHOULD CONTAIN FFFFH AND INSTRUCTION INT 11H TO BE EXECUTED. ON RETURN, REGISTER AX WILL INDICATE THE EQUIPMENTS ATTACHED TO COMPUTER INT 14H: CONTROL THE SERIAL COMMUNICATION PORT ATTACHED TO THE COMPUETR. AH SHOULD CONTAIN THE FUNCTION CALL (a) FUNCTION CALL 00:INITIALIZE THE COM PORT (b) FUNCTION CALL 01: SEND A CHARACTER (c) FUNCTION CALL 02:RECEIVE A CHARACTER INT 16H: KEYBOARD INTERRUPT AH SHOULD CONTAIN THE FUNCTION CALL (a) FUNCTION CALL 00: READ KEYBOARD CHARACTER, IT WILL RETURN ASCII CODE OF THE CHARACTER (b) FUNCTION CALL 01: GET KEY BOARD STATUS

8259

Control Word (initialization)

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
IF IF FLAG IS SET AND INTR BECOMES ACTIVE HIGH 8086 DOES THE FOLLOWING
1. 2. 3. 4. 8086 pulses INTA(active low) twice indicating to 8259 that interrupt occurred 8259 WILL SEND THE TYPE NO. OF HIGHEST PRIORITY INTERRUPT TO 8086 ON D0-D7 LINES DURING 2ND INTA PULSE(ACTIVE LOW) 8086 MULTIPLIES THIS TYPE NO. 4 AND GETS THE CORRESPONDING ADDRESS FROM IVT 8086 PUSHED FLAG REGISTER,CLEARS IF,TF,PUSHED RET.ADDR AND THEN EXECUTES THE ISR AT THE ADDRESS RECEIVED

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS IN 8259 BEFORE IT ACTIVATES INTR


1. 2. 3. 4. THE IRR REGISTERS THE INTERRUPT REQUESTS PRIORITY RESOLVER INTERACTS WITH IRR,ISR,IMR. IN CASE OF MULTIPLE INTERRUPTS HIGHEST PRIORITY INTERRUPT IS PICKED UP CORRESPONDING BIT IN IMR IS CHECKED BY PR TO SEE IF THIS INTERRUPT CAN BE ALLOWED OR NOT, ASSUME THAT IT IS ALLOWED ISR IS NOW CHECKED TO SEE IF ANY INTERRUPT IS UNDER SERVICE IF A HIGHER PRI.INTR IS UNDER SERVICE PR TAKES NO ACTION. IF NO HIGHER PRI.INTR IS UNDER SERVICE,IT ACTIVATES INT WHICH IS CONNECTED TO INTR OF 8086 8086 SENDS 2 INTA PULSES. USING 1ST PULSE 8259 WILL RESET THE CORRES PONDING IR BIT OF IRR TO INDICATE THE REQ IS ACCEPTED AND SETS THE CORRESPONDING IS BIT OF ISR TO INDICATE WHICH IR LEVEL IS UNDER SERVICE DURING 2ND INTA PULSE 8259 WILL SEND THE TYPE NUMBER OF INTERRUPT ISR BIT WILL BE RESET AT THE END OF INT.SERVICE ROUTINE

5.

6. 7.

PRIORITY MODES
FULLY NESTED MODE
DEFAULT MODE. IR0 HAS HIG.PRI,IR1 NEXT .IR7 LOWEST PRIORITY

SPECIFIC ROTATION MODE


AN IR WILL BE ASSIGNED LOWEST PRIORITY, THUS FIXING THE PRI OF OTHER INTERRUPTS IN CYCLIC MANNER EX: IF IR3 IS ASSIGNED LOWEST PRI., THEN IR2 IS NEXT HIGHER. IR4 IS HIGHEST PRI

AUTOMATIC ROTATION MODE


AN IR LEVEL AFTER BEING SERVICED GETS LOWEST PRIORITY, OTHER PRI WILL GET FIXED IN CYCLIC ORDER. EX: IR5 AFTER BEING SERVICED ASSIGNED LOWEST PRI,NEXT HIGHR WILL BE IR4,IR6 WILL BE HIGHEST

SPECIAL FULLY NESTED MODE

APPLICABLE FOR CASCADE CONFIGURATON.PRI.LEVEL OF SLAVE 8259 IS SAME FOR ALL INTERRUPTS. SO IF AN INTERRUPT IS UNDER SERVICE FROM A SLAVE THEN OTHER INTERRUPTS FROM SLAVE WILL NOT BE RECOGNISED. SFNM REMOVES THIS PROBLEM, ALLOWS HIGHEST PRI. INTERRUPT FROM A SLAVE TO BE RECOGNISE WHILE ANOTHET LOWER PRI INTERRUPT IS UNDER SERVICE

END OF INTERRUPTS
AUTOMATIC EOI EOI COMMAND NEED NOT BE GIVEN. ISR IS RESET BY LAST INTA PULSE. THE DRAWBACK IS THAT NOW ANY IR CAN INTERRUPT ISR. THIS METHOD IS GENERALLY USED WHEN A NESTED MULTI-LEVEL INTERRUPT STRUCTURE IS NOT REQUIRED. IT IS A PREFERRED MODE OF OPERATION AND REDUCES ISR LENGTH NON SPECIFIC EOI COMMAND THIS COMMAND WILL RESET THE HIGHEST PRIORITY ISR BIT. THIS IS BECAUSE IN NESTED MODE IT IS THE HIGHEST PRIORITY WHICH WILL BE IN SERVICE SPECIFIC EOI THIS COMMAND WILL RESET THE ISR BIT WHICH IS SPECIFIED AS A PART OF COMMAND. THREE BIT CODE L0 L2 SPECIFIES WHICH BIT HAS TO BE RESET

ICW-INITIALIZATION COMMAND WORD THERE ARE 4 ICWs ICW1 IS WRITTEN USING PORT0 ADDRESS OF 8259 ICW2 IS WRITTEN USING PORT1 ADDRESS OF 8259
It is used by 8086 to specify the interrupt type number which is sent by 8259 in response to INTA

ICW1, ICW2

D7

D6

D5

D4

D3

D2

D1

D0
A8

T7/ T6/ T5/ T4/ T3/ A10 A9 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11

D0-D7 ARE LABLED AS A8 TO A15(A8 A15) OF INTERRYPT VECTOR ADDRESS AND USED BY 8085

D0 D2 ARE NOT USED BY 8086 D3 D7 ARE LABLED AS T3-T7(OF INTERRUPT VECTOR TYPE,USED BY 8086 AND ARE 5 MSBs OF INTERRUPT TYPE NUMBER

Masking and Prioritization


OCW (operation command word)

Programming OCWs

OCW1 IS WRITTEN USING PORT1 ADDRESS OF 8259 IT IS USED TO SET RESET THE MASK BITS IN INTERRUPT MASK REGISTER D0 = 1 INDICATES IR0 IS MAKED OR DISABLED D0 = 0 INDICATES IR0 IS UNMASKED OR ENABLED D1 THROUGH D7 ARE FOR IR1 THROUGH IR7

OCW2 IS WRITTEN USING PORT 0 ADDRESS OF 8259 IT IS PROGRAMMED ONLY WHEN AEOI MODE IS NOT SELECTED IN ICW4 R- ROTATION SL-SPECIFIC LEVEL EOI END OF INTERRUPT

OCW3