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Complex Number: A complex

number z is an ordered pair (x, y),


where x & y are real nos. i.e.
z = (x, y)
x = real part of z = Re z
y = imaginary part of
− 1 z = Im z
We usually write

z= (x, y) = x + i y,

where i =
−1 = (0, 1)

i2 = i. i = (0, 1) . (0, 1) = ( -1, 0)


Important Operations

1.Addition of complex numbers:

z1 + z2 = (x1+iy1) +(x2+iy2)

=(x1+x2)+i(y1+y2)
2. Multiplication of complex
numbers:

z1 z2 = (x1+iy1) (x2+iy2)

=(x1x2- y1y2)+i(x1y2+x2y1)
3. Division:
If z1 = x1 + iy1 &
z 2 = x2 + iy2 ≠ 0 + i.0, then
z1 x1 + iy1 x1 + iy1 x2 − iy2
z= = = ×
z 2 x2 + iy2 x2 + iy2 x2 − iy2
x1 x2 + y1 y2 x2 y1 − x1 y2
= +i 2
x2 + y 2
2 2
x2 + y 22
Complex Plane:

• Choose the same unit of length on


both the axis

• Plot z = (x, y) =x +iy as the point P


with coordinates x & y.
• The xy-plane, in which the
complex nos. are represents in
this way, is called complex
plane or Argand diagram .
Complex Plane :
y

x P z= (x, y)

Imaginary
axis 1 yx

O
1

Real axis
Equality of two complex nos:
Two complex nos. z1 & z2 are said to
be equal iff
Re (z1) = Re (z2) &

Im(z1) = Im(z2).
Properties of Arithmetic operations:

(1) Commutative Law:

z1+z2 = z2+z1
z1z2 = z2z1
1. Associative law:

(z1+z2)+z3=z1+(z2+z3)
(z1z2) z3 = z1 (z2z3)
3. Distributive law

z1(z2 + z3)= z1z2 + z1z3


(z1+z2)z3= z1z3 + z2z3
4. z + (-z) = (-z) +z = 0

5. z.1 = z
• Complex conjugate number:

Let z = x+iy be a complex


number.
Then z = x – i y is called
complex conjugate of z
Properties of complex nos.:
1. z + z = 2 x
1
⇒ x = Re z = ( z + z )
2
1
2. y = Im z = ( z − z )
2i
3. z1 + z 2 = z1 + z 2

4. z1 z 2 = z1 z 2

 z1  z1
5.   =
z
 2  z2
6. z = z
7. z is real iff z = z.
8. iz = i z = − i z
9. Re (iz ) = − Im ( z ), iz = ix − y
10. Im (iz ) = Re( z )
11. z1 z 2 = 0 ⇒ z1 = 0 or z 2 = 0
Polar Form of complex Numbers:
Let z = x+iy
Put x = r cosθ, y = r sinθ
∴z = r (cosθ + i sin θ) = r eiθ
which is called polar form of
complex number.
MODULUS OF COMPLEX NUMBER

z =r = x +y ≥0
2 2

Geometrically, z is the distance


of the point z from the origin.
Y

y
r P z=(x+ iy)
=
z

θ
x X
O
 z1  >  z2 means that the point z1 is
farther from the origin than the point z2.
  z1-z2  = distance between z1& z2

z2
z
1
-z 2


2
z

z1
z 1
ARGUMENT OF COMPLEX NUMBER

The directed angle θ measured from


the positive x-axis is called the
argument of z, and we write θ = arg z.

z = x+iy

θ
• Remarks :

1. For z = 0, θ is undefined.
2. θ is measured in radians, and is
positive in the counterclockwise sense.
3. θ has an infinite number of possible
values, that differ by integer multiples of
2π. Each value of θ is called argument
of z, and is denoted by θ = arg z
4. When θ is such that -π < θ ≤ π, then

such value of θ is called principal value of

arg z, and is denoted by

Θ = Arg z, if - π < Θ ≤ π
5. arg z= Arg z + 2nπ, n = 0, ± 1, ±2,……..
i θ1 iθ 2
6. Let z1 = r1e , z2 = r2e .
Then z1 = z2 ⇔ (i ) r1 = r2 &
(ii ) θ 1 = θ 2 + 2nπ
n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,.....

7. arg( z1 z2 ) = arg( z1 ) + arg( z2 )


How to find argz / Argz ?
Ex1. Let z = −1 + i, Argz = ?
Sol :
We have
z = −1 +i = r (cos θ +i sin θ)
⇒ z =r = 2
∴−1 +i = 2 (cos θ +i sin θ)
⇒ 2 cosθ = − 1, 2 sin θ = 1
⇒ tan θ = − 1
⇒ θ = Θ = Argz = 3π / 4
Hence
arg z = Argz + 2nπ , n = 0,± 1,± 2,..
Ex2. Let z = −2i, Argz = ?
Sol :
We have
z = − 2i = r (cos θ + i sin θ )
⇒ z =r=2
∴ − 2i = 2(cos θ + i sin θ )
⇒ 2 cosθ = 0, 2 sin θ = − 2
⇒ θ = Θ = Argz = −π / 2
Hence
arg z = (−π / 2) + 2nπ , n = 0,± 1,± 2,..
Roots of Complex Numbers:
For z0 ≠ 0, there exists n values of
n
z which satisfy z = z0
iθ n n inθ
Let z = re ⇒ z = r e
n iθ 0
Let z = z0 = r0e , n = 2, 3,.....
n inθ iθ 0
Then r e = r0e
n
⇒ r = r0 ,
nθ = θ 0 + 2kπ ,
θ 0 + 2kπ
⇒ r = (r0 ) 1/ n
,θ =
n

∴z = r e
1 θ 0 + 2 kπ
i( )
⇒ z = z k = (r0 )n e n

is called nth roots of z0 , k = 0,1,.., n − 1.


Principal Root.

For k = 0,
1/ n iθ 0 / n
z0 = (r0 ) e

is called the PRINCIPAL ROOT.


Triangular inequality:
1. z1 + z 2 ≤ z1 + z 2

2. z1 − z 2 ≤ z1 + z 2

3. z1 + z 2 ≥ z1 − z 2

4. z1 − z 2 ≥ z1 − z 2
Let z = x+iy, Then z is the

distance of the point P (x,y)

from the origin


Y
iy OP=z
x +
z =
P,
z

O x
If z1 = x1 + iy1 and z 2 = x2 + iy2 ,
then z1 − z 2 = distance between z1 & z 2 .

z2
z1 − z 2
2
z

z1

z 1
Let C be a circle with centre z0 and

radius ρ. Then such a circle C can be


represented by C:z-z0= ρ .

c
z0 z-z0= ρ
Consequently, the inequality

z-z0 < ρ ----------(1)

holds for every z inside C.

i.e. (1) represents the interior of C.


Such a region, given by (1), is
called a neighbourhood (nbd) of
z0, i.e. the set

N(z0) ={z: z-z0< ρ}

is called a nbd. of z0
Deleted neighborhood:

N0 = {z: 0 < z-z0< ρ } is called


deleted nbd.
It consists of all points z in an
ρ -nbd of z0, except for the point
z0 itself.
• The inequality z-z0>ρ

represents the exterior of the

circle C.
Interior Point: Let S be any set.

Then a point z0∈S is called an

interior point of S if ∃ a nbd N(z0) that

contain only points of S, i.e.

z0 ∈N(z0) ⊆ S
Exterior Point: A point z0 is called

an exterior point of the set S if ∃ a

nbd N of z0 that contains no points

of S.

z0 is an ext. pt. of S ⇔ z0 is an int. pt

of Sc.
Boundary point:

A point z0 is called boundary point

for the set S if it is neither interior

point nor exterior point of S.


Open Set:

A set S is said to be open if every

point of S is an interior point of S, i.e.

S is open iff it contains none of its

boundary points.
Closed set:

A set S is said to be closed if its

complement Sc is open, i.e. S is

closed iff it contains all of its

boundary points.
Bounded set:

A set S is called bounded if all of

its points lie within a circle of

sufficiently large radius, otherwise

it is unbounded.
Connected Set:
An open set S is said to be
connected if any of its two points
can be joined by a broken line of
finitely many line segments, all of
whose points belong to S.
Domain:

An open connected set is called a

domain.
Accumulation point:
A point z0 is said to be an accumulation
point of a set S if every nbd N(z0) of z0
contains at least one point of S other
than z0, i. e. if S∩ {N(z0)\{z0}} ≠ φ , then
z0 is called an accumulation point of S.
Remark: z0 may be or may not be a point
Ex1: Sketch & determine which are domains

• S = {z:  z-2+i ≤1}

We have z-2+i≤ 1

⇒ x+iy -2+i ≤1

⇒(x-2)+i (y+1) ≤1

⇒(x-2)2 + (y+1)2≤1
(2,-1)
⇒ S contains the interior &

boundary pts. of a circle with centre

(2, -1) & radius 1.

⇒ (i) S is not a domain

(ii) S is bounded.
Ex2. S = { z:2z+3>4}

We have 2z+3>4

⇒2x+3+ i 2y >4

⇒ (2x+3)2 +4y2 >16

⇒ (x+3/2)2 +y2 >4


• Clearly S contents the exterior
3
pts of a circle with centre (− 2 ,0) &

radius 2.

•S is a domain and it is

unbounded
 z +1 
Ex. 3 S = z : < 1
 z −1 
Sol. Note that : z + 1 < z - 1
2 2
⇒ z + 1 < z -1
⇒ (z + 1)(z + 1) < (z - 1)(z - 1)
⇒ x < 0.
S is a domain and it is unbounded.