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Gas Turbine Power Plants

Chapter 9.5

Timeline
Week 1 2 Book Sections Covered 9.5 9.7 9.10, 9.9

3 4 5

9.8 , 9.9 9.1 9.4, 9.6.2 9.11 9.14

Homework Discussion

Homework 2 hint: read Section 8.2.3

Simple Gas Turbine


Open System Closed System

Compressors

Turbine Engine

Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

Air-Standard Brayton Cycle


Heat input Qin/m + (h2 h3) = 0 Heat output Qout/m + (h4 h1) = 0 Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

Air-Standard Brayton Cycle


Turbine work (h3 h4) - Wt/m = 0 Compressor work (h1 h2) - Wc/m = 0 Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

Air-Standard Brayton Cycle


Compressor Pressure Ratio P2/P1 Thermal efficiency = (Wt/m + Wc/m)/(Qin/m) = [(h3-h4) + (h1-h2)]/(h2 h3) Back Work Ratio (bwr) bwr = (Wc/m)/(Wt/m) (absolute value) bwr = (h1 h2)/(h3 h4) (absolute value)

Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

Air-Standard Brayton Cycle


Turbine work

Wt/m = h3 h4
Compressor work Wc/m = h1 h2 Heat input -Qin/m = h2 h3 Heat output -Qout/m = h4 h1 Thermal efficiency = (Wt/m + Wc/m)/(Qin/m) = [(h3-h4) + (h1-h2)]/(h2 h3) Back Work Ratio (bwr) bwr = (Wc/m)/(Wt/m) (absolute) bwr = (h1 h2)/(h3 h4) (absolute) Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

Irreversibilities and losses


Friction and heat loss cause process inefficiencies in Compressors (heat loss) Turbines (heat loss) Heat exchanger pipes (pressure drop)

Irreversibilities and losses


Pressure drop in heat exchanger pipes <<< heat loss in compressors and turbines <<< Inefficiencies during combustion

Irreversibilities and losses


t = (Wt/m)/(Wt/m)s = (h3 h4)/(h3 h4s)

c = (Wt/m)/(Wt/m)s = (h3 h4)/(h3 h4s)

EXAMPLE 9-6 WITH EES

Regenerative Gas Turbines

Regenerative Gas Turbine Cycle


The regenerator preheats the turbine inlet stream using heat from the exhaust gas
This reduces Qin (everything else remains the same) Note Tx can be higher than Ty

Regenerative Gas Turbine


Regenerator efficiency reg = (hx h2)/(h4 h2)

Gas Turbine Combined Cycle


Use rejected heat from the Top cycle as heat input to a Bottom cycle Improves efficiency = (Wgas + Wvap)/(Qin)

Regenerator Energy Balance mv *(h6-h7) + mg*(h4-h5) = 0

Gas Turbines with Reheat


Turbines require temperature control to prevent material deterioration One strategy is to provide cooling with excess air Reheat takes advantage of the excess air to burn more fuel What are some disadvantages?

Gas Turbines with Reheat

Compression with Intercooling


It is easier to compress a cooler gas (think of a hot air balloon)

But a cooler gas requires additional heat input


Optimization can help select number and temperature of intercooler stages

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles