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# Gas Turbine Power Plants

Chapter 9.5

Timeline
Week 1 2 Book Sections Covered 9.5 9.7 9.10, 9.9

3 4 5

## 9.8 , 9.9 9.1 9.4, 9.6.2 9.11 9.14

Homework Discussion

## Simple Gas Turbine

Open System Closed System

Compressors

Turbine Engine

## Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

Heat input Qin/m + (h2 h3) = 0 Heat output Qout/m + (h4 h1) = 0 Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

## Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

Turbine work (h3 h4) - Wt/m = 0 Compressor work (h1 h2) - Wc/m = 0 Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

## Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

Compressor Pressure Ratio P2/P1 Thermal efficiency = (Wt/m + Wc/m)/(Qin/m) = [(h3-h4) + (h1-h2)]/(h2 h3) Back Work Ratio (bwr) bwr = (Wc/m)/(Wt/m) (absolute value) bwr = (h1 h2)/(h3 h4) (absolute value)

## Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

Turbine work

Wt/m = h3 h4
Compressor work Wc/m = h1 h2 Heat input -Qin/m = h2 h3 Heat output -Qout/m = h4 h1 Thermal efficiency = (Wt/m + Wc/m)/(Qin/m) = [(h3-h4) + (h1-h2)]/(h2 h3) Back Work Ratio (bwr) bwr = (Wc/m)/(Wt/m) (absolute) bwr = (h1 h2)/(h3 h4) (absolute) Note: The book uses different signs for these equation.

## Irreversibilities and losses

Friction and heat loss cause process inefficiencies in Compressors (heat loss) Turbines (heat loss) Heat exchanger pipes (pressure drop)

## Irreversibilities and losses

Pressure drop in heat exchanger pipes <<< heat loss in compressors and turbines <<< Inefficiencies during combustion

## Irreversibilities and losses

t = (Wt/m)/(Wt/m)s = (h3 h4)/(h3 h4s)

## Regenerative Gas Turbine Cycle

The regenerator preheats the turbine inlet stream using heat from the exhaust gas
This reduces Qin (everything else remains the same) Note Tx can be higher than Ty

## Regenerative Gas Turbine

Regenerator efficiency reg = (hx h2)/(h4 h2)

## Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

Use rejected heat from the Top cycle as heat input to a Bottom cycle Improves efficiency = (Wgas + Wvap)/(Qin)

## Gas Turbines with Reheat

Turbines require temperature control to prevent material deterioration One strategy is to provide cooling with excess air Reheat takes advantage of the excess air to burn more fuel What are some disadvantages?

## Compression with Intercooling

It is easier to compress a cooler gas (think of a hot air balloon)

## But a cooler gas requires additional heat input

Optimization can help select number and temperature of intercooler stages