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Project planning

Probably the most time-consuming project management activity. Continuous activity . Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available. Different types of plan may be developed to support the main project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 1

Informal vs. Formal planning

Informal planning projects involving few activities ,resources, constraints and inter-relationships can be visualized and planned informally.

Formal planning when a project crosses a certain threshold level of size and complexity, informal planning has to be substituted by formal planning.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 2

Functions of planning

Provide a basis for organizing the work on the project Allocate responsibilities to individuals Provide a means of communication and coordination of all those involved in the project. Induce people to look ahead. Develop a sense of urgency and time consciousness Establish the basis for monitoring and control.
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 3

Ian Sommerville 2004

Areas of Planning

A comprehensive project planning covers the following: Planning the project work- The activities must be identified. They should be properly scheduled and sequenced. Planning the manpower and organizationestimate the manpower requirementsmanagers, technologists, operators, and others

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 4

(------- contd)

Planning the money- The expenditure must be budgeted in a time-phased manner Planning the information system The information required for monitoring the project must be defined

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 5

Stages in the Life cycle of a project

Project development and preliminary engineering Bidding and contract negotiation Engineering design Purchase and procurement Construction Commissioning

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 6

Concepts in planning these stages


1.

2.

Rolling wave concept when detailed planning is done for one stage, summary planning would be done for the remaining stages. Integration concept - planning for all the stages must be integrated. It stems from the inter-relationship among various stages of the project.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 7

Tools of planning

Bar chart , also referred to as Gantt chart or the multiple activity chart. Net work techniques

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 8

Bar chart
-

is a pictorial device in which the activities are represented by horizontal bars on the time axis

Advantages of bar chart: Simple to understand Can be used to show progress Can be used for manpower planning

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 9

Limitations of bar chart

Can not show inter-relationship among activities on large and complex projects Physical limit to the size of the bar chart may limit its application Can not easily incorporate frequent changes in the project

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 10

Network techniques
In these techniques the activities, the events and their inter-relationships are represented by a net work diagram, also called arrow diagram. These are more sophisticated than the traditional bar chart. Advantages: (i) They can effectively handle inter-relationships among project activities (ii) Timely identification of the activities which are critical
Ian Sommerville 2004 Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 11

(contd..)
(ii)Timely identification of the activities which are critical to the completion of the project (iii) They can handle very large and complex projects (iv) They can be easily computerized and updated Drawbacks: (i) Being more complicated the project personnel may not be able to understand easily. (ii) The do not define an operational schedule which tells who does what and when.
Ian Sommerville 2004 Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 12

The project plan

The project plan sets out:


The resources available to the project; The work breakdown; A schedule for the work.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 13

Project plan structure

Introduction. Project organisation. Risk analysis. Hardware and software resource requirements. Work breakdown. Project schedule. Monitoring and reporting mechanisms.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 14

Activity organization

Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress. Milestones are the end-point of a process activity. Deliverables are project results delivered to customers. The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 15

Milestones in the RE process

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 16

Project scheduling

Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task. Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 17

The project scheduling process

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 18

Scheduling problems

Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard. Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task. Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads. The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 19

Bar charts and activity networks

Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule. Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two. Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path. Bar charts show schedule against calendar time.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 20

Example : Task durations and dependencies


Activity T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12
Ian Sommerville 2004

Duration (days) 8 15 15 10 10 5 20 25 15 15 7 10

Dependencies

T1 (M1) T2, T4 (M2) T1, T2 (M3) T1 (M1) T4 (M5) T3, T6 (M4) T5, T7 (M7) T9 (M6) T11 (M8)
Slide 21

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Example: Activity network


1 4/7 /03 8 d ays T1 2 5/7 /03 4/7 /03 s tart 15 d ays T2 10 d a ys T4 1 8/7 /03 M5 2 5 d ays T8 19/9 /0 3
Ian Sommerville 2004 Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 22

15 d a ys T3 5 d ays 4/8 /0 3 M4 15 d a ys T9 2 5/8 /0 3 M6 7 d ays T1 1 11/8 /0 3 M7 15 d a ys T1 0 5/9 /0 3 M8 10da ys T12

M1

M3

T6 2 0 d ays T7

25/7 /03 M2

10 d ays T5

Fin is h

Example : Activity timeline


4/7 11/7 Start T4 T1 T2 M1 T7 T3 M5 T8 M3 M2 T6 T5 M4 T9 M7 T10 M6 T11 M8 T12 Fin is h 18/7 2 5/7 1/8 8/8 1 5/8 22/8 2 9/8 5/9 12/9 1 9/9

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 23

Example: Staff allocation


4/7 Fred T4 T8 T11 T1 2 Jane T1 T3 T9 An ne T2 T6 Jim Mary T7 T5 T10 1 1/7 18/7 2 5/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 2 2/8 2 9/8 5/9 1 2/9 19/9

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 24

Risk management

Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur

Project risks affect schedule or resources; Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed; Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 25

The risk management process

Risk identification
Identify project, product and business risks;
Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks; Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk; Monitor the risks throughout the project;

Risk analysis

Risk planning

Risk monitoring

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 26

The risk management process

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 27

Risk identification

Technology risks. People risks. Organisational risks. Requirements risks. Estimation risks.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 28

Risk analysis

Assess probability and seriousness of each risk. Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high. Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 29

Risk planning

Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk. Avoidance strategies
The probability that the risk will arise is reduced; The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced;

Minimisation strategies

Contingency plans
If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk;

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 30

Risk monitoring

Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable. Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed. Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 31

Key points

Good project management is essential for project success. The intangible nature of software causes problems for management. Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning, estimating and scheduling. Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 32

Key points

A project milestone is a predictable state where a formal report of progress is presented to management. Project scheduling involves preparing various graphical representations showing project activities, their durations and staffing. Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats.

Ian Sommerville 2004

Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5

Slide 33