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Matrix Stimulation

and Hydraulic Fracturing



Well Stimulation

Matrix stimulation (remove near wellbore formation damage)
Reactive (acidizing)
Non reactive (solvents/surfactants)

Acid fracturing (low k carbonates or remove damage in high
k sandstones)

Hydraulic fracturing (low k sandstones)

Group of well treatments which objective is to remove the formation
damage and, depending on each case, to restore the natural production
capacity (matrix stimulation), or bring it above this value (Hydraulic
Fracturing or Acid Frac).
Matrix Stimulation
e
w
e
o
i
P
kh
s
r
r
ln B q 1 . 142
P +
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

The treating fluid is pumped into the well at a bottom hole
injection pressure which value does not exceed the mechanical
resistance of the rock.
Pi is the bottom hole injection pressure Pe the reservoir
pressure.
Knowing the fracture pressure is required to stablish the limit
of Pi.
.
PUMPING RATE, BPM
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
,

M
p
s
i
FRACTURE PRESSURE
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Matrix Stimulation
SOURCE OF DAMAGE TYPE OF DAMAGE MATRIX
TREATMENT___________
DRILLING, COMPLETION AND CHANGE IN WETTABILITY SOLVENT/SURFACTANT
STIMULATION FLUIDS
EMULSIONS SOLVENT/ SURFACTANT

INORGANIC DEPOSITS ACID / /INHIBITOR /MECHANIC

WATER BLOCKAGE SURFACTANT / SOLVENT


FINES MIGRATION ACIDIZING

CLAY MIGRATION / SWELLING ACIDIZING

INORGANIC DEPOSITS ACID / /INHIBITOR /MECHANIC

ORGANIC DEPOSITS SOLVENT / THERMAL /
MECHANIC





PLUGGING BY SOLIDS ACIDIZING
PRODUCTION
INVASION OF SOLIDS FROM
DRILLLING MUD, COMPLETION
FLUIDS OR STIMULATION FLUIDS
SELECTION OF TYPE OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT
Matrix Stimulation
Non Reactive Treatments

Combination of aromatic solvents, mutual solvents and surfactants
to remove damage due to asphaltene or paraffine deposition

Sequential treatments with oxidants and Na(OH) to eliminate
plugging by bacterias in water injection wells.

Specific treatments with surfactants for special damages, such as
those produced by inverted muds (emulsions and changes in rock
wettability)

Mixture of acetic acid, mutual solvents and aromatic solvents,
specially for gravel pack clean out.
Matrix Stimulation
Reactive Treatments (Acid/Rock Interactions):
1.- Fundamentals
Hydrochloric acid, HCl (Carbonates)
Hydrofluoric acid , HF (Silicate minerals: Clays and Feldspars)
Acetic acid, CH3- COOH (carbonates dissolution at high temperatures)
Formic acid HCOOH (carbonates dissolution at very high temperatures)
2.- Special combinations and formulations
Mud-Acid: Mixture of HCl y HF (Clays)
Sequential Mud Acid: Alternative stages of HCl and NH4F (Clay-Sol) (in situ HF Generation)
Alcoholic acids (water block in gas wells) (Lower surface tension)
Mud acid retarded with aluminium chloride (excessive clay content)
Dispersed Acids (in aromatic hydrocarbons to remove organic deposits in the minerals and
allow contact of acid with rock higher penetration).
Acid to remove debris from perforations during shooting.
Fluoboric acid (Clay Acid: alternative to mud acid (slow generation of HF), stabiizes clay
fines, specially Kaolinite)

Matrix Stimulation
Basics mechanisms of Interaction
between acid and rock minerals
Reactive Stimulations
STOICHIOMETRY: Amount of rock dissolved
for a given amount of acid expended.

REACTION KINETICS: Rates at which acids
react with various minerals.

DIFFUSION RATES: How rapidly acid is
transported to the rock surfaces.

Reactive Stimulations
STOICHIOMETRY
2HCl + CaCO
3
CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
Reaction between HCl and Calcite
DISSOLVING POWER FACTOR ( ) FOR DIFFERENT HCl
SOLUTIONS (ft
3
CaCO
3
/ ft
3
HCl)

HCl Concentration (%)

5 0.026
10 0.053
15 0.082
30 0.175
Reactive Stimulations
STOICHIOMETRY
4HF + SiO
2
SiF
4
+ 2 H
2
O
Reaction between HF and Silicate Minerals
DISSOLVING POWER FACTOR ( ) FOR DIFFERENT HF
SOLUTIONS (ft
3
SiO
2
/ ft
3
HF)

HF Concentration (%)

2 0.006
3 0.010
4 0.018
6 0.019
8 0.025
SiF
4
+2HF SiF
4
+ 2 H
2
O
Precipitation of acid reaction products
Reactive Stimulations
2HF + CaCO
3
CaF
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O (fast)
In sandstone acidizing:
Colloidal Silica Si(OH)
4
(slow)

Ferric Hydroxide Fe(OH)
3
(present in iron bearing minerals
or dissolution of rust tubing)

Asphaltene sludges (contact of acid with some crude oils)
Acid modifications by additives

Indispensable Additives

Corrosion inhibitor (Prevent damage to casing and tubing)
Iron stabilizer (Prevent Fe(OH)
3
deposition )
Surfactant (Prevent emulsions and sludge)

Any other additive is optional and the necessity to use it, must be
demonstrated by doing compatibility tests with formation fluids.

DO NOT EVER USE UNNECESSARY ADDITIVES
Reactive Stimulations
Formation Treatment Response
Prediction of the reaction of the rock and saturating fluids with the alive
and wasted acid.

(The idea is to remove damage, not to build in additional damage).
It is important to know the rock mineralogy in order to know:

1.Which volume of formation will be dissolved by the acid (solubility tests)
2.Which volumen of formation will be dissoved in HCl-HF.
3.Which products will precipitate as a consequence of these reactions.

Reactive Stimulations
Components of an acid treatment

1 Preflush
Avoid contact of the acid with the crude oil
Avoid contact of the hydrofluoric acid with sodium, potassium or calcium
(CaF2 precipitation)
2 Treatment
Mixture of acid designed to remove damage.
3 Over displacement
Push the acid to the limit of critical area.
Solutions of NH4Cl (non reactive), gasoil with mutual solvent, mutual
solvent with surfactant, nitrogen
Reactive Stimulations
Properties of Formation Favourable for using hydrofluoric acid

Less than 15% of solubility in HCl
Difference between solubility in HCl and HCl-HF greater than 10%
Contain Montmorillonite or Kaolinite
Wells with a thick mud cake (from caliper)
Wells drilled with poor solids control
Wells with moderate low water cut
Fines migration problem identified (Abrupt decrease of production)
Wells producing sediments and mud
Wells with loss of circulation in the producing zone
Zones with low resistivity, low water production , high clay content
Reactive Stimulations
Injection Pressure and Rate
Optimum Conditions:

Maximum rate and maximum pressure without fracturing the formation.
A previous injectivity test must be done or the fracture gradients of the area must
be taken.
For safety reasons, Pi must be 500 psi lower than the fracture pressure
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
e
w
e
o
i
P
kh
s
r
r
ln B q 1 . 142
P +
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Design of the treatment stages

Possible separator of ammonium chloride to displace
incompatible water formation.
Preflush of solvents and surfactants (avoid emulsions)
Preflush of acetic acid for carbonates if the formation contains a
lot of iron (avoid Fe(OH)3 precipitate)
Preflush of HCL.
Treatment with variation of HF.
Overdisplacement with NH4Cl, weak HCl, Gasoil with
surfactants, Nitrogen.

Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
ACID SELECTION
STANDARD TREATMENTS
Carbonates: 15%WT HCl

Sandstones: 3%HF, 12% HCl, preceeded
by 15% HCl (preflush)
Sandstone Acidizing (Guidelines from extensive field experience)
HCl solubility >20% Use HCl only
High Permeability (100 mD plus)
High quartz (80%), low clay (<5%) 10%HCl - 3%HF (a)
High Feldespar (>20%) 13.5%HCl 1.5%HF (a)
High clay (>10%) 6.5%HCl 1%HF (b)
High iron chlorite clay 3%HCl 0.5%HF (b)
Low Permeability(10 mD or less)
Low Clay(<5%) 6%HCl - 1.5%HF (c)
High Chlorite 3%HCl 0.5%HF (d)
ACID SELECTION
(a) Preflush with 15% HCl (b) Preflush 5% HCl + iron stabilizer
(c) Prefluysh with 7.5%HCl or 10% acetic acid (d) Preflush with 5% acid acetic
(*) McLeod (1984). For selection of optimal treatments lab testes must be performed)
(*)
Carbonate Acidizing
Perforating Fluid 5% acetic acid
Damaged Perforations 9% formic acid
10% acetic acid
15% HCl
Deep Wellbore damage 15% HCl
28% HCl
Emulsified HCl

ACID SELECTION
PENETRATION RADIUS (FEET)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
u 5
u 10
u 15
u 20
u 25

V= tr
2
h|, for h= 1
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

V
o
l
u
m
e
s

(
g
a
l
l
o
n
s
/
f
t
)

FLOW RATE, Q
B
O
T
T
O
M
O
L
E

F
L
O
W
I
N
G

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
,

P
w
f

P
r

0
0
PRODUCTION INCREASE
1
2
2**

2*
WELL WITH
SKIN EFFECT
S=12
WELL WITHOUT SKIN EFFECT
S=0
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
NODAL ANALYSIS
TIME, MONTHS
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
S=12
S=0
Impact of Damage on Cumulative Production
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
C
U
M
U
L
A
T
I
V
E

O
I
L

P
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N
,

M
B
b
l
s

+
0
-




Pay out time
t
U D
t
D
TIME
Production
Exploration Evaluation
Development
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
S=12
S=0
Impact of formation damage on cash flow and payout time
Placement Techniques and Vertical Distribution
Dependent on:

Permeability
Thickness
Reservoir Pressure
Multiple Zones
Chemical Distribution Tecnique:
Resins dispersable in water, benzoic acid
Mechanical Distribution Techniques:
Packers, Cups, Coiled Tubing, Sealing Balls
Fluids Viscosifier
Foam
Maximum rate and pressure (Paccaloni)
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment
Additional Design Considerations

A minimum injectivity of 0.25 BPM is required at the end of the
treatment
Low formation pressure requires using foamy fluids.
Safety: H2S, high pressures, handling of fluids to be pumped,
contingency plan
Different procedures for new and old wells
Casing and cement integrity
Design of a Chemical Matrix Treatment

Execution and Evaluation of the Acid Job

Supervisin and quality control before the job

Well preparation: Cleaning, platform o location conditioning,
wellhead.
Possible circulation of acid to clean out the tubing
Tanks and lines cleaning
Wellhead Testing
Equipment Availability
Tanks circulation
Samples of all mixed fluids
Laying of lines and valves
Meeting with personnel
Hidrostatic Test
Supervision and quality control during the job

Know the capacity of the tubing to know when each fluid is reaching
the perforations.
Take samples of each fluid
Observe the pressure response when each fluid reach the formation
If the pressure increases, damage is increasing. Stop and flow
the well
If the pressure decreases, keep the pressure increasing the rate,
without fracturing.

Execution and Evaluation of the Acid Job

Supervision and quality control after the job

Put the well on production as soon as possible to give no chance of
secondary reactions.
Take samples of the returning fluids, analyze type and size of
solids, returning acid concentration, iron content, emulsions,
Test the well


Execution and Evaluation of the Acid Job


1.- Paccaloni Method

Pi = Surface pumping pressure, psi
Pe= reservoir pressure, psi
Ph= Hidrostatic pressure, psi
Pfr= Friction losses, psi
Q= Injection rate, b/d
= Fluid viscosity, cp
K= Effective permeability of the injected fluid, md
h= Formation thickness, feet
rb= Radius of the ijected fluid bank, feet
rw= Well radius, feet
s= Skin factor, dimensionless

Based on this equation, a plot of injection pressure versus rate is
prepared, taking S as the parameters of the curves
Real Time Monitoring and Evaluation of an Acid
Stimulation
P P P P
Q
K h
r
r
i e h fr
b
w
-S

= ( - + ) + . *
*
*
141 7

|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
ln
Real Time Monitoring and Evaluation of an Acid
Stimulation
PRESION DE
FRACTURA
S=10 S=5 S=2 S=0
S=-2
S=-3
PERDIDAS POR FRICCION
Paccaloni
INJECTION RATE (bpm)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0 1 2 3 4 5
S
U
R
F
A
C
E

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
,

P
S
I


PACCALONI METHOD
Friction losses
Surface Frac pressure
EXERCISE

A well is draining oil from a reservoir which matrix contains 10% Vol CaCO3
and no other HCl-soluble mineral and has an initial porosity of 20 %.
Wellbore radius=0.5 ft

Calculate the volume (gal) of 15% wt HCl needed to dissolve all carbonates
to a distance of 2.5 ft (r
s
=3.0ft) from the wellbore (Preflush). Reservoir
thickness = 60 ft.



1 ft3=7,48 gal; dissolving power factor of HCl 15%=0,082 ft3CaCO3/ft3HCl

Hydraulic Fracturing
The pumping pressure exceeds the mechanical resistance
of the rock
A high conductivity channel is created in manner where:
The damaged area around the wellbore is by passed.
The channel extends in the reservoir to increase the
productivity.
The channel changes the flow pattern in the reservoir.
Hydraulic Fracturing
How?
Pump at high pressure
Breakdown the formation
Open up & propagate the
fracture
Fill the fracture up with
proppant
Fracture
Growth
Direction
Frac
fluid
injection
o
min

Benefits of fracturing
By pass of the formation damage
Reduction of draw-down
Control of the disaggregation of the porous medium
Reduction of fines migration and asphaltene deposition
Reduction of water
Increase of the productivity index
Improvement of the connection reservoir-well
RADIAL FLOW
WELL
Pwf
Pe
r
q
p
r
o

A
A
|
\

|
.
|
Kh
Benefits of fracturing
Flow Pattern without Fracturing
Linear Flow in the fracture
Bi-linear Flow
Linear flow in the reservoir
Eliptic or Transitional flow
Pseudoradial flow
Alteration of flow pattern
1
0
0

f
t

ELIPTIC FLOW
DIST. PARALLEL TO THE FRACTURE
WELL
Pwf
Pe
Pressure drop in the fracture
f
f
fD
kx
w k
C =
2 x
f

w
CONDUCTIVITY CONTRAST
kf: Permeability of the fracture
k: Reservoir permeability
1.0
Productivity Index
(
(

+
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
f
x
r .
B
kh
r
x
s
x
r .
B
kh
J
f
e
w
f
f
f
e
472 0
ln
2
ln
472 0
ln
2
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX WITH FRACTURE
(Cinco Ley and Samaniego)
Cinco-Ley and Samaniego
0
1
2
3
4
0.1 1 10 100 1000
C
fD

f

fD
fD
C u
u . + u . u+ . +
u . u+ . - .
C f
ln where
005 0 064 0 18 0 1
116 0 328 0 65 1
) (
3 2
2
=
=
f = ln(2) para C
fD
> 1000

EXERCISE
WELL DATA
Depth: 8000 ft
Tbg ID: 3
Kr=5 mD
Pr=2085 psi
h =50 ft
rw=6
re=2500 ft

Calculate the production increase when a fracture of
L=100 ft and width= 1 is created by a hydraulic
fracturing job

STAGE 1
STAGE 2A
STAGE 2B
Kp/
Skin Factor S
Thickness h
Barriers Bd
Hole conditions Wd
Matrix
Stimulation
Fracture
Stimulation
Damage
Mechanism
Temperature
Solubility HCl
Homogeneity
Geomechanic
Natural fractures
Fines Stabilization
Matrix Acidization
Solvents
Other Chemical
Treatments
Mechanical Removal
Thermal Methods
Acid Frac
Hydraulic Fracturing
STAGE 1A
Selection of the stimulation
STAGE 1B
A FRACTURE TREATMENT MUST BE JUSTIFIED BASED ON:

INCREASE OF THE PRODUCTION RATE
INCREASE OF THE PRODUCTIVITY INDEX
ACCELERATED RESERVES RECOVERY
INCREMENT OF THE RESERVES
INCREASE OF THE PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF THE WELL

THE FLOW RATE AND THE RECOVERY ARE CONTROLLED BY:

DRAINAGE AREA
RESERVES
FORMATION PERMEABILITY
FRACTURE LENGTH
FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY
Selection of the stimulation
LOW PERMEABILITY
Log q
TIME
STIMULATED
NOT STIMULATED
TIME
Np
STIMULATED
Selection of the stimulation
NOT STIMULATED
Increasing Reserves
HIGH PERMEABILITY
Log q
time
economic Limit
stimulated
not stimulated
time
Np
final recovery
stimulated
not stimulated
Selection of the stimulation
Acelerating Reserves
5 mD - 7000 mD.FT
5mD - 3000 mD.FT
1 mD - 7000 mD.FT
1 mD - 3000 mD.FT
1000
4000
2500
3500
3000
2000
1500
FRACTURE LENGTH, FT (Xf)
NPV M$
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Selection of the stimulation
k kf x w
FINAL RECOVERY
IN HIGH PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS THERE IS NO ADDITIOINAL
RECOVERY, BUT ACCELERATION OF THE RESERVES.

IN LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS THE RECOVERABLE RESERVES
ARE INCREASED.

THE RESERVES ARE FUNCTION OF PERMEABILITY, FRACTURE
LENGTH, DIMENSIONS AND SHAPE OF THE DRAINAGE AREA.
Selection of the stimulation
FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION

WELLS SPACING AND FRACTURE LENGTH MUST BE KNOWN TO
OPTMIZE THE INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN AND THE NET PRESENT
VALUE.

IN GENERAL, LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS REQUIRE LONG
FRACTURES.

HIGH PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS REQUIRE SHORT AND VERY
CONDUCTIVE FRACTURES.
Selection of the stimulation
RESERVOIR
SIMULATOR
Np
t
Xf=300
0


Xf=100
0


Xf=500


$ INC.
$ COST.
$ ENT.- $
COSTO
FRACTURE LENGTH
FRACTURE LENGTH
FRACTURE LENGTH
FRACTURE LENGTH
FRACTURE
SIMULATOR
TREAT.
VOLUME
Selection of the stimulation
PSEUDO-TRIDIMENSIONAL MODELS
HOLDITCH, TRIFRAC
STIMPLAN, NSI, INC.
ENERFRAC, SHELL

2.- PARAMETRIZATION OF FRACTURE GEOMETRY
FRACPRO, RESOURCES ENGINEERING CO.
MFRAC II, MEYER & ASSOCIATED
FRACCade, Schlumberger
1.- PLANAR
PLANAR 3D
TERRA-FRAC, TERRA-TEK
HYFRAC 3D, ADVANI, LEIGH UNIVERSITY
CHING YEW, TEXAS UNIVERSITY
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING DESIGN
STRESS CONCENTRATION
TORTUOUSITY CONCEPT
CONVECTIVE DISTRIBUTION CONCEPT
PERFORATING DESIGN FOR CONVENTIONAL FRACTURING
PERFORATING DESIGN FOR HIGH PERMEABILITY
FRACTURES
PERFORATING DESIGN FOR FRAC-PACK
SCREENLESS FRAC-PACK
MAIN GOAL OF ANY TYPE OF FRACTURE
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING DESIGN



1


2


3

4

5


6


7

8
9

10



11
Depending on the porosity, permeability and
sand quality, the fracture may be initiated in
the layers 6 and /or 2, and may be vertically
propagated upward or downward depending
on the contrast of stresses between this two
layers and the adjacent layers. It is more
probable the upward growth of the fracture.

Shales are barriers when their effective
thickness is greater than 50 feet.

The vertical growth can be stopped by a high
permeability sand, due to the excess of fluid
leakoff..
Layer 10 exhibits an oil-water contact which
can make water to break through in the well if
this layer is fractured.
.
To control the starting point of the fracture, the
cement has to be perfect
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING DESIGN
OTHER PARAMETERS
FLUID SELECTION
PROPPANT SELECTION
FRACTURE HEIGHT
REAL TIME MONITORING
MINIFRAC ANALYSIS
WELL PRODUCTION TEST
BULID UP TEST
POST-FRACTURE DAMAGE
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX VARIATION


CONVECTIVE REDISTRIBUTION OF THE FLUID STAGES OF DIFFERENT DENSITY,
DUE TO THE PROPPANT CONCENTRATION.

TORTUOUSITY IN THE NEAR WELLBORE WHICH LIMITS PLACEMENT OF THE
PROPPANT.

HIGH PRESSURE INSIDE THE FRACTURE DUE TO THE NON LINEAL EXPANSION
OF THE ROCK, WHICH IN CONSEQUENCE REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
THE CONTENTION BARRIERS OF THE FRACTURE.

THE REOLOGY AND THE INJECTION HAVE VERY LITTLE INFLUENCE IN THE
FRACTURE DIMENSIONS, BUT THEY CONTRIBUTE TO ELIMINATE THE
TUORTUOUSITY.

THE FRACTURE GROWTH IS MAINLY DOMINATED BY THE VARIATIONS IN
PERMEABILITY.
CRITICAL FACTORS IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING


















D= 7
L= 1000 PIES
AREA=
t
D
L
2
4
= 250 FT
2


Q DEPENDS ON
K
K
V
H
LF= 300 FT
AREA= APPROX 4x300x100= 120000 FT
2


AND Q ONLY DEPENDS ON KH AND THE FRACTURE
CONDUCTIVITY
HF= 100 FT
ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
1.- DECREASES THE FLUID VELOCITY IN THE FACE OF THE ROCK MATRIX

2.- INCREASES THE EFFECTIVE DRAINAGE AREA OF THE WELL.

3.- DECREASES THE REQUIRED NUMBER OF WELLS TO DRAIN A CERTAIN AREA.

4.- REDUCE THE NECESSITY TO DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS.

5.- DECREASES THE PRESSURE DROP IN THE MATRIX BY CHANGING THE FLOW PATTERN. L

6.- CONTROLS SAND PRODUCTION AND ASPHALTENES, PARAFFIN AND SCALE DEPOSITION.

7.- RETARDS THE EFFECT OF WATER CONING, BY DECREASING THE PRESSURE DROP.


ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
UNIFIED FRACTURING DESIGN
Exist an unique optimum combination
of fracture width and length for a given
volume of proppant to get a maximum
productivity index for that set of
conditions
Anomalies Identification and Formation
Damage Diagnosis
Anomalies Identification and Formation
Damage Diagnosis
Anomalies

Low Productivity Index
High Declinatioin Rate
Is the well damaged?
Factors to be discounted before diagnosing
formation damage
Insufficient number of shots per foot
Partial Penetration
Diameter and penetratiion of the guns
Bad Cementation
Tubular Designs
Artificial Lift Design
Surface Facilities Restriction
After this analysis, a diagnosis of the true
formation damage can be done
Anomalies Identification and Formation
Damage Diagnosis
Determination of type of damage
Analysis of group of wells from the same reservoir (OFM)
Reservoir quality analysis around the wellbore
Nodal Analysis to identify restrictions
Buld up test analysis
Well production history review
History of drilling, completion and workover operations
Fluids/solids samples analysis
Production log analysis
Lab Analysis

Anomalies Identification and Formation
Damage Diagnosis
Analysis of group of wells from the
same reservoir
J
e
ideal
Wells with Normal
Performance
Wells with Low
Performance
o o
o
ideal
B
K
J
=
h
Reservoir quality analysis around the
wellbore
Reserves
Porosity
Cumulative Production
Remaining Reserves

Permeability
Fluids Saturation
Clay index
Log Analysis

NODAL ANALYSIS
P
r

0
0
1
2
GAS LIFT
P
b

PRODUCTION INCREASE
WELL WITH A
VERY STONG
SKIN EFFECT
3
IPR IMPROVED BY
REPERFORATION +
STIMULATION JOB
ZERO GAS IN
THE PUMP
Pwf > Pb
ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE
PUMP (ESP)
FLOW RATE, Q
B
O
T
T
O
M
H
O
L
E

F
L
O
W
I
N
G

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
,

P
w
f

BUBBLE PRESSURE
Build up Tests
( )
23 . 3 log 151 . 1 s
2
w
wf hr 1
cr
k
m
P P
+ =
|

Production History Review


Historia de produccin
1
10
100
1000
0 5 10 15 20
tiempo, meses
P
r
o
d
u
c
c
i

n

B
/
D
Acidizing Job
% water cut
PRODUCTION HISTORY
TIME, months
P
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N

S
T
B
/
d
a
y

Production History Review
Production History Review
TIME, DAYS
S
T
B
/
D
A
Y

OIL FLOW RATE
WATER FLOW RATE
WARNING!!
History of drilling, completion
and workover operations
Overbalance during drilling/workovers
Chemical additives and their effect
Surfactants
pH stabilizers
Corrosion inhibitor
Dispersants
Hidrocarbons
Type and size distribution of solids in the drlling and
workoiver fluids
Type of acid and additives used during cemical stimulation
Types of fluids and additives used in hydrauliuc fracturing
jobs
Produced Fluids Analysis
Solids analysis
Fluids Composition (cromatography, water characterization)
PVT analysis
Fluids Compatibility
Asphaltenes, Paraffins
Emulsions stability
Organic/inorganic Precipitates




Production logs
1. ZONES CONTRIBUTION IN COMMINGLED PRODUCTION

2. CHANGES IN PROFILE DUE TO STIMULATION TREATMENT

3. LOCATION OF WATER ZONES

4. VERTICAL FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN INJECTION WELLS

5. MECHANICAL CONDITIONS OF THE WELL
(TUBING/CASING/PACKER LEAKS, CORROSION, CEMENT)

6. FLOW BEHIND THE CASING

7. CROSS FLOIW



CORE FLOW TESTS

Evaluacin del potencial de dao de un fluido de trabajo
10
100
1000
0 100 200 300 400
Volmenes porosos inyectados
P
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a
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i
d
a
d
,

m
D
Water
50% original K
EVALUATION THE DAMAGING POTENCIAL OF A WORKING FLUID
INJECTED PORE VOLUMES






P
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Acid response curve
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
FORMATION
WATER
HCL MUD ACID (12% HCL- 3% HF)
VOLUMENES POROSOS INYECTADOS
INJECTED PORE VOLUMES






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OTHER LAB TESTS
-ACID SOLUBILITY ANALYSIS
-MICROSCOPY OBSERVATIONS (PETROGRAPHY)
-PRODUCED SOLIDS SOLUBILITY ANALYSIS
-ROCK COMPOSITION
-ASPHALTENE SOLUBILITY ANALYSIS