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EVDO Basic Principle

Internal Use Only

EVDO Overview The Key Technologies of EVDO The Commercial Application of EVDO EVDO Network Structure

EVDO Channel

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

What is the EVDO ? the advantages of the EVDO ; the difference of the 1x and EVDO;

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Abbreviations

Internal Use Only

1xEV EVolution of cdma2000 1X 1xEV-DO Data Only or Data Optimized HDR High Data Rate HRPD High Rate Packet Data AN Access Network AT Access Terminal 3GPP2 C.S0024: cdma2000 High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Standards

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

EV-DO Evolution

Internal Use Only

IS-95A IS-95B

CDMA2000-1x Release 0 Release A

CDMA2000 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 1xEV-DO

Natural evolution of CDMA2000 1x Enjoy surfing In 3G service ahead of time

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

1xEV-DO basic features

Internal Use Only

Allocate one 1.25MHz bandwidth, data only Forward link rate: from 38.4kbps to 2.4Mbps Reverse link rate: from 9.6kbps to 153.6kbps Same RF characteristic with 1x/IS-95 Adopting a series revolutionary technique in air interface to accelerate data traffic

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

EV-DO Exciting Feature(1)


Feature Item Service Transfer rate CDMA 2000 1X(1.25M) Voice and data IS95<14.4kbps 1x<153.6kbps/307.2kbps

Internal Use Only

EV-DO(1.25M) Data only FL<2.4Mbps/3.1Mbps RL<153.6kbps/1.8Mbps Forward: TDM+CDM, reverse: CDM VHO in FL Soft Handoff in RL Rate Control Power Control in RL Rate Control in FL

Division multiplex CDM for both Handoffs Power Control and Rate Control Hard Handoff and Soft Handoff Both in FLRL Fast Power Control Both In FLRL No Rate Control

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

Backward and Forward Compatibility

Old handset can be used in new network, and new handset can be used in old network. Handset availability!
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

EV-DO Exciting Feature(2)

Internal Use Only

Leverage Current Investment:


Sharing the same RF with 95/1X Insert new EVDO channel cards and software upgrade Flexible Network Configuration: Can be used as a stand-alone network or together with an CDMA2000-1X network

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

More Advanced Features of Rev. A


Improved Forward Link Larger Payloads Drive Data Rates To 3.1Mbps Improved MAC Supports Over 100 Users Per Sector Packet Division Multiplexing Improves Performance In Good Channel Conditions Improved Reverse Link Up 1.8 Mbps Data Rate Throughput and Latency Gains With Hybrid ARQ Improved Packing Efficiency Enhanced Quality of Service (QoS) Inter-User Priority by User Intra-User Priority by Application Error Reduction in BTS Admission Control Adaptive Scheduler for delay sensitive Applications Quick Connect with Adaptive Quick Start Broadcast/ Multicast (BCMCS) Multimedia content to multiple users

Internal Use Only

Improved support for real-time packet applications, including VoIP, Gaming, Video Streaming

Can leverage advanced all-IP architectures, IMS support !

Enhanced capabilities to enable service flexibility and new revenue generating features

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

the commercial application of EVDO

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

1xEV-DO commercialization Internal Use Only by CDMA operators

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

the CDMA Development Process of ZTE

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only


In November 2001, launched large-scale research and development in cdma2000 1xEV-DO products. In February 2002, launched research and development in cdma2000 base station system based on all-IP technology. In June 2002, ZTE, for the first time, exhibited complete cdma2000 1x EV-DO equipment on Hong Kong 3G annual fair. In October 2003, commissioned a field trial cdma2000 1x EV-DO. In June 2004, had the capability to supply cdma2000 1x EV-DO products in batch. In July 2004, commissioned a field trial cdma2000 1x Release A. In November 2004, put cdma2000 1x Release A and cdma2000 1x EV-DO products into commercial operation. In 2004, launched research and development in cdma2000 1x EVDV products.
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

ZTE CDMA Wireless Solution


ZXC10-BSCB/PCF Suburb or village ZXCBTS-M

Internal Use Only


ZXRPT-C

ZXC10-BTSB I1

ZXCBTS-R

ZXC10-CBTS Compact city zone ZXCBTS-M800

ZXC10-BTSB I2
ZXCBTS-R ZXCBTS-M+ZXICS-C Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Zte cdma2000 gobale application


Europe
Bulgaria Norway Turkey

Internal Use Only


CIS
Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Asia Pacific
China Indonesia Mongolia Vietnam

North Africa
Algeria Benin

South America
Brazil Argentina Nicaragua

Nigeria

Middle East South Asia


Egypt Kuwait Saudi Arabia Afghanistan India Pakistan Nepal

South Africa
Kenya Zambia Angola ...

CDMA 1X

EV-DO

CDMA 1XGoTa CDMA 1XEV-DO

CDMA 1XEV-DOGoTa

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Zte cdma2000 gobale application

Internal Use Only

1.ZTE CDMA products have been successfully deployed in approximately 60 countries serving for approximately 100 operators, with a global capacity of 30 million lines for commercial use. Accordingly ZTE has become Chinas largest telecommunication equipment exporter, and one of the leading CDMA equipment vendors in the world. 2.By December 2005, ZTE has captured 21.56% market share in China Unicoms CDMA business, ranking third only next to Motorola (23.35%) and Lucent(22.14%). 3.ZTEs GoTa products have found widespread applications in over 20 countries such as Russia, Norway, Malaysia, etc. ZTEs GoTa has become China-made digital trunking system with the widest applications home and abroad. ZTE has built over 40 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO systems for commercial or trial use in more than 30 countries and regions such as Philippine, Vietnam, Pakistan, Mongolia, etc.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

EVDO Network Structure

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only EVDO NETWORK STRUCTURE

HLR MSC AAA HA

AT

BTS

BSC

PCF

A10/A11

PDSN

Access Network ( 1x and DO )

ANAA A

ATaccess terminal ANaccess networkincluding BSC and BTS AN AAAAAA server for access network
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

Simple Network Structure (End to End IP)

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

Difference with 1x Reference Network 1xEV-DO is data only, so no interface to MSC/HLR The Packet Data Domain equipmentPDSNAAA HAis same as 1X Independent Access network AAA server Two A interfaces added: - A12 for access system authentication
- A13 for AT roaming home AN and Foreign AN interaction

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

1xEV-DO Channel Overview

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

1xEV-DO Channel Overview

Internal Use Only

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

1xEV-DO Channel Overview

Internal Use Only

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Forward Link Overview

Internal Use Only

The transmission rate is the rate requested by AT on the reverse link. Dedicated to a single AT at any given instant of time.

Pilot is embedded in the traffic stream (as opposed to a continuous transmitted pilot in IS-95).
Paging and Sync Channels are combined into a single Control Channel whose messages are time multiplexed on the single user forward link. Forward link transmission is organized as 26.66ms frames. Each frame consists of sixteen 1.66ms slots. Each slot contains 2048 chips. Each slot is divided into two half slots with 1024 chips each. No soft handoff TDMed, full power and variable rate (38.4 kbps ~ 2457.6 kbps) Adaptive coding and modulation (R = , 3/8, and ; QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM) Interleaving, puncturing, repetition and symbol demultiplexing
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Quadrature Spreading, baseband Filtering and up-converting

Forward Channel Structure


Internal Use Only

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

The 1xEV-DO forward channel structure is of a time multiplexed of the following channels Pilot channel used by AT for all the following Initial acquisition Phase & timing recovery Coherent demodulation and maximal ratio combining Medium access Control (MAC) consists of three sub-channels: Reverse activity channel (RA) carries reverse activity bit (RAB) stream Reverse power control (RPC), DRC Lock channel user packets Traffic channel carries Control channel carries messages

Forward Pilot Channel

Internal Use Only

A Pilot channel is transmitted at all times by the sector on each active forward channel. The Pilot channel is an unmodulated BPSK signal assigned Walsh cover 0. The Pilot channel is sent as 96 chip bursts, each of which is located at the center of each half slot. The Pilot channel is transmitted at the full sector power.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Forward MAC Channel

Internal Use Only

MAC channel is a CDM of Reverse Activity (RA) channel and Reverse Power Control (RPC) channels/DRC. MAC channel is composed of up to 64 orthogonal Walsh channels and distinguish its uses (control & traffic preamble etc.) . The RPC Channel and the DRC Lock Channel shall be time-division multiplexed.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Forward MAC Channel

Internal Use Only

RA channel belongs to a kind of broadcast channel , it is used to carry RAB information , controlling the reverse links payload dynamic . When AN finds the reverse payload too large , AN will transmit RA to AT and request AT adjust ATs data rate; RPC channel is used to carry reverse power control information ; DRC Lock Channel carrys the information whether AN have received ATs message, when AN cannt demodulate ATs message which is sent through DRC,AN will show AT send message anew;

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

MAC Channel and Preamble Internal Use Only Use Versus MACIndex

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Forward Control Channel

Internal Use Only

The Control Channel Cycle period is 256 slots and synchronous with 1xEV-DO system time. The AN transmits a Control Channel at a rate of 38.4 or 76.8kbps. It is the combination of paging channel and sync channeling;

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Time Division Multiplexed in FL


USER LEVEL

Internal Use Only

In 1xEV-DO,the whole forward link is used as a shared Fat Pipe, TDMed by all users. Specific time for which subscriber depending on the policy of forward transmission algorithmRound Robin, maximize data throughput of sector.

BS 1

AT 3 AT 1

1 2 1 time slo ts

3 4
AT 2 BS 2

tim
AT 4

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

sl o

ts

Reverse Link OverviewInternal Use Only


Reverse link parameters - Reverse channel frames are 26.66ms; - Packet size is fixed at 26.66ms; - Each slot contains 2048 PN chips; Output power characteristics are similar to CDMA2000 1X - Access channel operation is similar to CDMA2000 1X - Closed & open loop power controls the mean output power of pilot and MAC channels - The power levels for data are adjusted based on selected data rate Traffic channel - In-phase component is a CDM of pilot/RRI and ACK channels - Quad-phase component is a CDM of DRC and data channels - Independent gains on DRC and ACK channel relative to pilot DRC gain range (-9dB to +6dB) ACK gain range (-3dB to +6dB) Access channel is composed of pilot channel and data channel - In-phase component consists of the pilot channel - Quad-phase component consists of the data channel
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Channel Structure

Internal Use Only

Each Traffic is direct sequence spread by a distinct user PN code sequence. The Access channels are identified by a distinct Access channel PN sequence per sector. Code MultiplePilotW016DRC=W816ACK=W48Data=W24
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Access Channel

Internal Use Only

The Access Channel is used by the access terminal to initiate communication with the access network or to respond to an access terminal directed message. The Access Channel consists of a Pilot Channel and a Data Channel. The access terminal shall transmit information on the Access Channel at a fixed data rate of 9.6 kbps.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Traffic Channel Overview

Internal Use Only

Data channel:PilotRRIDRCACKData The Reverse Traffic Channel is used by the access terminal to transmit user-specific traffic or signaling information to the access network. The Reverse Traffic Channel consists of a Pilot Channel, an RRI Channel, a DRC Channel, an ACK Channel, and a Data Channel. The access terminal shall support transmission of information on the Data Channel of the Reverse Traffic Channel at data rates of 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, and 153.6 kbps. The data rate used on the Data Channel is specified by the Reverse Traffic Channel MAC Protocol.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Traffic Pilot / RRI Channel

Internal Use Only

Pilot channel Unmoduated symbols with binary value . Giving an assistance coherent demodulation achieves better receiver performance (reduces the required Eb/No) . RRI channel Reports data rate of the current reverse link data packet. Represented by 3-bit RRI symbol, sent once per data packet One-to-one mapped to reverse data rates Each RRI symbol maps into a 7-bit codeword. Time multiplexed with pilot symbols on every slot.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Traffic ACK Channel

Internal Use Only

The ACK channel transmits a 0 bit if a data packet has been received successfully, and a 1 if not in order to indicate whether a data packet on the forward traffic channel has been received successfully. The ACK channel is generated by taking a single ACK bit, repeating this bit 128 times; The ACK channel bit is transmitted at 9.6kbps in response to every FTC preamble that the AT detects is directed to it; By using ACK channel in RL, AN can early terminate multi-slot packet transmissionand increased the actual throughput, it is HARQ;

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Traffic DRC Channel

Internal Use Only

AT sends the request of the desired data rate and best serving sector on the forward channel to AN over the DRC channel. Desired serving sector in the Active Set is indicated by one of eight 8-ary Walsh functions. Data rate is block encoded to yield 8-bit bi-orthogonal codewords. AT estimates C/I received forward channel and determines the supportable data rate and the requested sector for transmission in the active set. Only the sector requested will transmit packets to the AT, after receiving 2 consecutive DRCs from AT. The sector sends a data packet with a preamble to the AT at the rate requested by the DRC in the preceding slot. Once the sector starts sending packets to an AT, it must continue to do so until the packet Tx is complete or an Ack bit is received.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Traffic Data Channel

Internal Use Only

Reverse traffic data can be transmitted from 9.6kbps to 153.6kbps. All data transmitted on the reverse traffic channel shall be turbo encoded, block interleaved, sequence repeated, and orthogonally spread by Walsh function W24(++--).

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse Link Power Control

Internal Use Only

Reverse Link is power controlled similar to IS-95 / CDMA2000 1X. AT transmitted power which is determined by both open-loop and close loop power control. Based on measurements of reverse link signal quality, sector continually sends up/down power control bits to the AT . Using closed loop power control achieved , AT adjusts its Pilot/MAC output power with 0.5 dB or 1.0dB step sizes, based on power control bit received on forward link from AN. Open loop estimate based on received forward link power.
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

The key Technologies

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Time Division Multiplexed in FL

Internal Use Only

In 1xEV-DOthe whole forward link is used as a shared Fat Pipe, TDMed by all users.

BS 1

AT 3 AT 1

1 2 1 time slo ts

3 4
AT 2 BS 2

tim
AT 4

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

sl o

ts

Adaptive modulation and coding


1xEV-DO can automatically adjust its FL data rate, modulation scheme, coding rate according to the feedback of FL channel SINR provided by AT. AT use DRC sub channel to inform AN

Internal Use Only

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Fast Cell Site Selection


current sector forward data rate After handoff AP2 forward data rate
Pilot/MAC on FWD link Pilot/DRC/ACK/Traffic on REV Link (APs in ATs active set)

Internal Use Only

AP3 AP1 Server before t1 Server after t1 AP4

At any instance there is only one serving sector that is transmitting data to a given AT The serving sector is decided by AT and changes as the Forward channels SINR changed. AT use DRC sub channel to infrom AN who is the serving sector

AP2

Serving AP AP1

Serving AP change AP2

t1

Time

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Serving Sector Selection illustration


Serving Sector Selection
3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 0

Internal Use Only

SINR, dB

Sector 0 Sector 1 Serving Sector Index


2 4 6 tim e, sec 8 10 12 14

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Hybrid ARQ

Internal Use Only

By using ACK channel in RL, AN can early terminate multi-slot packet transmissionand increased the actual throughput.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse link rate control


In 1x EV-DO specifications, ATs reverse rate can be freely adjusted by AT from 9.6kbit/s to 153.6kbits. In order to avoid all the AT become unavailable, the workload of reverse links must be constrained to prevent too many users in the same sector from transferring data to AN at a high rate.

Internal Use Only

P1

P2

P3

P4

Not Busy

9.6 kbps

19.2 kbps

38.4 kbps

76.8 kbps

153.6 kbps

q1

q2

q3

q4

Busy

9.6 kbps

19.2 kbps

38.4 kbps

76.8 kbps

153.6 kbps

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Reverse link Power control

Internal Use Only

Power control is essential to the system maximization. The forward power control is not required in 1x EV-DO because of its constant power. Therefore, power control is mainly adopted by reverse channels. Reverse Power control includes Opened-loop power control Closed-loop power control

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Virtual soft handoff in forward link

Internal Use Only

In The forward Virtual Handoff, theres only one sector sends data to the terminals at a particular time in the AT active set. According to the quality of each received pilot, AT can use the DRC_Cover to specify the sectors which are expected to transfer data. In AN, all the sectors within the active set are listening to the reverse channels of the AT. AN decides which sector is the Serving Sector of the AT according to the DRC channel received. Theres no signaling messages exchange between AN and AT in the forward Virtual Handoff as it is very quick. It only takes up one sectors forward air resource at anytime. The usability of forward channels are improved significantly.
Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Dual Mode Operation with 1x/DO

Internal Use Only

As 1xEV-DO supports only data traffic, a total voice and data solution needs integrating cdma2000 1x and 1xEV-DO Packet data traffic can be handoff from 1x to DO, and dual mode terminal can monitor both systems control channel, so even active in DO system it will not lose any voice terminated calls in 1x system.

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division

Internal Use Only

Thank You !

Customer Service Department of CDMA Division