Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-1

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The focus of advertising research

The research process


What is qualitative research What quantitative research is The basic approaches to testing ads The essentials of effective testing

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-2

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

MARKET, MARKETING & ADVERTISING RESEARCH

Market Research is information collected about a particular market or market segment.


Marketing Research furnishes information about consumers needs that is necessary for developing new products and formulating marketing strategies. It enables managers to measure the effectiveness of marketing programs, promotional activities, develop economic forecasts, help in financial planning and quality control. Advertising Research is a subset of marketing research. It systematically gathers and analyses information to help develop or evaluate advertising strategies, individual ads, or whole advertising campaigns.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-3

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

PURPOSE OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH


Advertising research serves a number of purposes which can be grouped into four categories: Advertising strategy research is used to determine the product positioning, to assist in the selection of the target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles.

Creative concept research is used to assess the extent of the target audiences acceptance of different creative development stage.
Pre-testing of ads is done to diagnose any possible communication problems before beginning an ad campaign.

Post-testing of ads helps advertisers to evaluate the campaign results.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-4

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

RESEARCH STAGES IN ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT


Advertising strategy research
Timing
Before creative work begins Product positioning, target audience selection, media selection, message selection Consumer attitude and usage studies

Creative concept Pre-testing research


Before agency production begins Concept testing, name testing, slogan testing Before finished artwork and photography Print testing, storyboard pretesting, radio commercial testing Consumer panels, matched samples, portfolio tests, storyboard tests, psychological rating scales

Post-testing
After campaign has run Advertising effectiveness, customer attitude, sales increases Aided recall, unaided recall, attitude tests, inquiry tests, sales tests

Research problem

Techniques

Free association tests, qualitative interviews, sentence-completion tests

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-5

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

ADVERTISING STRATEGY RESEARCH


Advertising strategy is developed by carefully blending the elements of the creative mix. The mix elements are: Target audience research helps to develop a precise profile of a brands target market and consumers. Product and its positioning to understand how consumers perceive their brands and those of competitors. Communications media research helps develop media strategies and select media vehicles from among different media class and type. Advertising message-element research helps to study and identify what the consumers like and dislike with respect to the brands and to find the big idea to develop a promising message.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-6

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

CREATIVE CONCEPT RESEARCH


Creative specialists prepare several tentative ad concepts that ate tested through research. Focus groups, lab test, intensive qualitative interviews, observation, videotaping, and quantitative techniques are used to test each of the rough copy platforms, to identify which of the creative concepts are most promising. Pre-tests and post-tests are conducted to ensure that money is wisely used, to achieve the advertising objectives. Pre-tests help in making decisions about: Merchandise, Markets, Motives, Messages, and Media.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-7

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

THE RESEARCH PROCESS


Effective research involves five basic steps:

1.
2. 3.

Problem definition
Exploratory or informal research Secondary research regarding market, competition and other aspects of the business environment. Determining research objectives

4.

Formal research
1. 2. Qualitative research Quantitative research

5.

Interpretation of research data and reporting

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-8

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

DETERMINING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


A concise and written statement should define the research problem and the specific research objective at the beginning. Research objectives may seek out answers to: Who are out customers? Who are the customers of the competing brands? What do these customers like and dislike about us and the competitors? How are we currently perceived among customers? What must we do to clarify and improve the customers existing perceptions?

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-9

Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


Qualitative research is used to unearth consumers deeper motives by using projective or intensive techniques and is also called motivation research. Advertisers use projective techniques to understand the subconscious feelings, interests, needs, opinions, attitudes and motives of consumers. In-depth interviews are used to probe deeper feelings of the respondents and individual motivations. Focus group techniques are used to explore the true feelings or behaviour of potential users of a product, or the marketing situation.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-10 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

APPROACHES TO QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


Quantitative research is used to gather reliable, hard statistical data about specific situations or market conditions. This type of research uses observation, experiments, and surveys. Observation methods help to monitor consumers behaviour. Experiments are conducted to measure the actual cause-and-effect relationships for new product introductions and effectiveness of ad campaign in a geographical area. Surveys are used to collect primary data on attitudes, opinions, motivations, etc.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-11 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS


Personal interview survey Costs of data collection Time required to collect data Sample size for a given budget Data quantity per contact Can reach widely dispersed sample Reach to special locations Level of interaction with respondents Degree of interview bias Presentation of visual stimuli Response rate High Medium Small High No Yes High High Yes High Telephone survey Medium Low Medium Medium Maybe Maybe Medium Medium No Medium Mail survey Low High Large Low Yes No None None Maybe Low

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-12 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS


The research design should be carefully developed and strict standards should be applied for collecting and tabulating the data. The advertiser must ensure that the data collected is valid and reliable to be useful. Validity means that the research must actually measure what is being investigated. Reliability of a test means that approximately similar results can be obtained if the research is repeated. Validity and reliability depend on such key factors like sampling methods, the design of survey questionnaire, data tabulation approach and the method of analysis.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-13 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS


Investigating all members of a population is virtually impossible as the time and resources available for research are limited. Hence researchers obtain the required information through sampling. A sample is a carefully selected, limited number of representative members to be surveyed. Sampling involves deciding who to survey, how many to survey, and how to choose the respondents.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-14 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS


As a rule, the size of a sample must be large enough to achieve accuracy and stability, larger sample size ensures more reliable results. There are two broad types of sampling techniques: random probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Greatest accuracy is obtained from random probability samples because all units in a population have a known and equal chance of being selected. Stratified sampling and area sampling are variations of random probability method.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-15 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS


Non-probability sampling is much easier, less expensive and time consuming than probability sampling, hence researchers use it extensively. Non-probability sampling techniques include quota sampling, judgment sampling, and convenience sampling. In these methods the elements of the population do not have a known chance of being selected so there is no guarantee that the sample is representative of the population and validity cannot be confirmed.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-16 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION
Constructing a good questionnaire requires considerable expertise,

One must guard against asking the wrong questions, or too many questions, or the wrong choice of words.
Effective survey questions include focus, brevity, and clarity. The common types of questions are: Open-ended Dichotomous Multiple-choice

Semantic differential (scale)

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-17 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION
Developing an effective questionnaire should consider the following points: List specific research objectives The questionnaire should be short Questions should be clear First prepare a rough draft

Opening statement should be short


Put the respondent at ease Structure questions logically Avoid questions that may be suggestive of an answer

Include a few questions that cross-check the respondents earlier answers


Put personal questions at the end of the questionnaire Pre-test the questionnaire
SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-18 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

APPROACHES FOR TESTING ADS


Pre-testing (also known as evaluative research) may be conducted as early as idea generation to rough execution to testing the final version before its implementation. By pre-tests a number of variables can be evaluated, such as, the ability of the ad to attract attention, message comprehension by the audience, recall of copy points, probability of consumers purchase, credibility and irritation levels, etc. Evaluative research provides a better creative ad for clients and controls the cost to be spent on communicating the message effectively.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-19 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

METHODS FOR PRE-TESTING PRINT ADVERTISING

Direct questioning
Focus group Portfolio test Paired comparison test

Order-of-merit test
Mock magazine test Direct-mail test

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-20 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

METHODS FOR PRE-TESTING TV and RADIO ADVERTISING

Central location test


Clutter test Trailer test Theatre test

Live telecast test


Sales experiment

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-21 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

PACT (Positioning Advertising Copy Testing) PRINCIPLES


1.
2. 3. 4.

Provide measurements that are relevant to the objectives of the advertising


Require agreement about how the results will be used in advance of each specific test Provide multiple measurements (because single measurements are not adequate to assess ad performance) Be based on a model of human response to communications-the reception of a stimulus, the comprehension of the stimulus and the response to the stimulus.

Cont
SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-22 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

PACT PRINCIPLES
5. 6. Allow for consideration of whether the advertising stimulus should be exposed more than once. Require that the more finished a piece of copy is, the more soundly it can be evaluated and require, as a minimum, that alternative executions be tested in the same degree of finish. Provide control to avoid the biasing effects of the exposure context. Take into account basic considerations of sample definition. Demonstrate reliability and validity

7. 8. 9.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-23 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTING TECHNIQUES


Pupillometeric device

Eye-movement camera
Galvanic skin response (Electro dermal response) Voice-pitch analysis Brain-pattern analysis Hemispheric lateralisation

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-24 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

POST-TESTING METHODS
Post-testing occurs after the advertising has run and is undertaken both by advertisers and ad agencies. It is more expensive and time consuming than pre-testing. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in post-testing. Common method are: Aided recall tests (recognition-readership)

Gallup & Robinson Impact test


The Starch Readership Report Unaided recall tests Day-after-recall (DAR) test (ASI Market research)

Attitude tests
Inquiry tests Sales tests
SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-25 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books

ADVERTISING RESEARCH

ESSENTIALS OF EFFECTIVE TESTING


Advertising effectiveness tests address the nine PACT principles and are accomplished by following the decision sequence model in formulating the advertising plans. The steps involved are: Establish communications objectives

Use a consumer response model


Use both pre-tests and post-tests Use multiple measures Understand and implement proper research.

SHH Kazmi, Satish K Batra 2007

21-26 Advertising and Sales Promotion, S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra

Excel Books