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Causal Hypotheses

Causal Hypotheses
● Statement of relationship between an
independent and dependent variable
● Describes a cause and effect
● Usually stated in two forms
● The null hypothesis
● The alternative hypothesis
● The two forms are
● Mutually exclusive
● Exhaustive
Causal Hypothesis (One-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Employee training program will reduce


employee absenteeism.

Null: There will be no change or there will be more


absenteeism as a result of training.

Alternative: There will be less absenteeism as a result of


training.
Causal Hypothesis (One-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Employee training program will reduce


employee absenteeism.

Null: There will be no change or there will be more


absenteeism as a result of training.

Alternative: There will be less absenteeism as a result of


training.
No change

Less More
- 0 +
Absenteeism
Causal Hypothesis (One-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Employee training program will reduce


employee absenteeism.

Null: There will be no change or there will be more


absenteeism as a result of training
.
Alternative: There will be less absenteeism as a result of
training.
No change

A “one-tail” hypothesis

Less More
- 0 +
Absenteeism
Causal Hypothesis (Two-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Our new drug treatment will cause a difference


in depression.

Null: There will be no change in depression as a


result of treatment.

Alternative: There will be a change in depression as a


result of treatment.
Causal Hypothesis (Two-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Our new drug treatment will cause a difference


in depression.

Null: There will be no change in depression as a


result of treatment.

Alternative: There will be a change in depression as a


result of treatment.
No change

Less More
- 0 +
Depression
Causal Hypothesis (Two-Tail)

Causal hypothesis Our new drug treatment will cause a difference


in depression.

Null: There will be no change in depression as a


result of treatment
.
Alternative: There will be a change in depression as a
result of treatment.
No change

A “two-tail” hypothesis

Less More
- 0 +
Depression