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ADDIE MODEL

What is the ADDIE Model ?

The ADDIE model refers to one of the most influential and most utilised instructional design models. Purpose: To create a learner-centred learning environment so that effective learning can take place.
This means that each instructional component is determined by the learning outcomes.

ADDIE MODEL
There are five vital phases in the model. 1. 2. 3. nalysis esign evelop mplement

4.

5.

valuate

ADDIE MODEL
nalysis - The first phase that has to be done before developing the instruction.

- Focusing on the course to be taught and the students involved.

- A few things that should be taken into consideration in the analysis phase:

ADDIE MODEL
nalysis Course Design - Why is this course designed? - The duration of the course. - Who will be involved in the designing of the course? Target

- Who are the learners?


- How many of them? - Why do they need the course?

ADDIE MODEL
nalysis Identification of learning environment and method of delivery.

Instructional strategies
Assessment and Evaluation strategies

Limitations
How to maintain the quality of the course design.

ADDIE MODEL
nalysis Target (cont.) - What do the students need to learn? - To what extent are their prior knowledge? - What types of learning need to happen ( refer to Blooms taxonomy)?

Goals Objectives
Identification of course content

ADDIE MODEL
esign (Membentuk) This phase involves the output achieved in the Analysis phase in planning strategies to design the instructions Preparing guidelines on how to achieve the set learning outcomes. Identifying the selected dates, topics to be taught, teaching methodology, materials and sources as well as evaluation strategies.

ADDIE MODEL
esign (Membentuk) This phase involves the output achieved in the Analysis phase in planning strategies to design the instructions Preparing guidelines on how to achieve the set learning outcomes. Identifying the selected dates, topics to be taught, teaching methodology, materials and sources as well as evaluation strategies. For example:

ADDIE MODEL
esign (Membentuk) This purpose of this phase is to build plans as well as the materials for teaching and learning. It is the phase for designing instructions, choosing the appropriate media in the teaching and learning process, as well as supporting documents including the software and the hardware involved. Creating the alternative and supporting content, assignments, tasks, assignment instructions, assessment, quizzes, forums etc.

ADDIE MODEL
esign (Membentuk) For examples: 1. Module Guidelines 2. Course Schedule 3. Communication Guidelines 4. Course Structure

5. Technical Needs
6. Introduction to the Learners

ADDIE MODEL
mplementation Implementation is the phase where the instructions begin. It can take place in the classroom, the science lab, the computer lab or even at home. The purpose of this phase is to achieve an effective and efficient instruction.

The implementation phase should be focused on the students comprehension towards the sources, offering support to the mastering of learning objectives and making sure that the transition of knowledge takes place.

MODEL ADDIE
mplementation Before class begins, check: a. The beginning and end dates ; as well as datelines b. Setting for the assignment c. Links in the learning modules

Making sure that all hardware, software, websites and URLs work smoothly and without a hitch.

MODEL ADDIE
valuate

The evaluation phase is done to assess the teaching and learning activities that have been carried out. The evaluation id conducted by identifying the extent the learning outcomes have been achieved.
The evaluation process should be done throughout the instructional design process intra phase stage, inter phase stage and after the implementation stage.

MODEL ADDIE
valuate

Evaluation is done in two forms:


a. Formative b. Summative Formative evaluation conducted while and within phases. Purpose: To modify the instructions before the final version is implemented. Summative Evaluation conducted after the implementation of the instructions. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of the whole instructions.

MODEL ADDIE
valuate

The findings from the summative evaluation can be used in making further decisions whether to continue or discontinue the course. The questions that can be used in making evaluations:
a. Are the students achievement parallel to the learning objectives that have been set prior to the course? If there are gaps between the two, it means that there are problems or loopholes concerning the course or the delivery.

MODEL ADDIE
valuate
The questions that can be used in making evaluations :

b. If there is a problem, where is it?


i. The instructions in the introductory page is unclear. ii. The objectives are not measurable.

iii. The assessment strategies do not measure appropriately.


iv. Examples are not given. v. Rubrics and guidelines are unclear. vi. Assignments are vague. vii. Others.

MODEL ADDIE
valuate To get a better and more in depth information:

1. Revisit the findings and data from the formative evaluation to identify the emerging problems, 2. Interviewing the students to get a clearer input on what went wrong with the instructions.

MODEL ADDIE
Examples of Tasks Needs analysis - Identification of problem - Task analysis
-

Examples of Output Learner profiles - Limitations - Problem statement Measurable objectives - Instructional strategies - Prototype specifications
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Analysis

Design

Preparing the objectives - Building the assessment items - Designing the instructions - Identifying the sources
-

Develop

Collaborating with the producers Building workbooks, flowcharts and programs

Story board - Scripts, Exercises


-

Implement

Teacher training - Utilisation


-

Data - Learners comments


-

Evaluate

Test findings interpretations - Revise activities


-

Recommendations - Project report - Improvised prototype


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MODEL ADDIE
ANALYSIS

DESIGN

FORMATIVE EVALUATION

DEVELOP

IMPLEMENT

SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

WEAKNESSES OF ADDIE MODEL


The process needs an in depth and detailed analysis. Does not take politics reality into account. Loss of opportunities, lack of support, budget and the change of focus and target.

The story board is not so efficient in designing , communicating and evaluating the instructional design. Sometimes the story board can miss in detecting inefficient designs.
The process is too detail and rigid, allowing very little space for creativity.

WEAKNESSES OF ADDIE MODEL


No rooms for new ideas to be introduced. The learning program is designed to meet specific criteria (such as cost, schedule) Failed to identify the behavioral changes that learners go through. The post test findings do not contribute much in providing vital information to help in improving the instructions.

Sources:
1. http://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/addie_weaknesses.html 2. http://ehopac.org/TransformationReports/ISD-ADDIEmodel.pdf 3. http://raleighway.com/addie/index.htm 4. Anglin, G.J. (ed.) (1995) Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future. Englewood, CO. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. 5. Merrill, M.D. (1994) Instructional Design Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publication. 6. http://www.seas.gwu.edu/~sbraxton/ISD/general_phases.html