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Well Design Spring 2012

Well Design
PE 413
Classification Additives Calculation of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

API has defined eight standard classes and three standard types of cement for use in wells. The eight classes specified are designated class A to class H. Three types specified are: Ordinary O, Moderate sulfate-resistant MSR, and high sulfate-resistant HSR.

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Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Classification of Drilling Cements

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
For the slurry: Thickening time (acceleration, retardation) Density (extenders, weight increase/reduction) Friction during pumping Fluid loss (by filtrate) Lost-circulation resistance (whole slurry loss) For set cement: Compressive strength

Strength retrogression (loss with time)


Expansion/contraction

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Accelerators
Cement-setting time is accelerated to reduce WOC time and to increase early strength. This is desirable for surface pipe, in shallow (cooler) wells, and for setting plugs. The most common accelerators are calcium chloride, sodium silicate, sodium chloride (low concentrations), seawater, hemihydrate forms of gypsum, and ammonium chloride.
Type: Accelerators Amount used per sack (% by weight) 2-4 3 - 10 (water)

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) (flake, powder) Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

1.5 - 5 (cement)

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Retarders
Cement-thickening time is slowed primarily to allow the slurry to be pumped and

displaced into position before setting.

Retarders

Amount used per sack (% by weight) 0.1 - 1.0 0.1 to 1.0 -

Calcium-Sodium Lignosulfonate Calcium Lignosulfonate Saturated Salt Solutions

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Temperature Effect on the Thickening Time

Thickening function

time of

is

both

temperature and pressure,

and these effects must be


predicted before additives are selected

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Density Reducing Additives - Extenders
Slurry density may be reduced with extenders such as bentonite, pozzolan,

diatomaceous earth, and anhydrous sodium metasilicate.


Low-density slurry is frequently preferred, to decrease the likelihood of breaking down the formation and causing lost circulation. In addition, low-density slurries cost less per cubic foot because yield per sack is increased. Density decrease results in large part from increased water content. Extenders, with their high surface area to "tie up" water, permit water addition without separation. Cement strength is reduced approximately in proportion to water-

content increase. However, we shall see later that high strength is not always
required

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Density Reducing Additives - Extenders

Type: Density reducers/extenders

Amount used per sack (% by weight) 2 to 16 1/2 to 4 10, 20, 30 or 40 74 lb/sk

Bentonite Attapulgite Diatomaceous Earth (Diacel D) Pozzolan, Artificial (fly ash)

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Density Increasing Additives
High density cement sluries are often necessary to offset the high pressures that

are frequently encountered in deep or abnormally pressured fromations. Density


may be increased with weight material such as sand, barite, hematite or ilmenite, and/or salt dissolved in the mix water.
Density increasers Amount used per sack (% by weight)

Sand
Barites Ilmenite (iron-titanium oxide) Hematite Salt

5 to 25
10 to 108 5 to 100 4 to 104 5 to 16

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Filtration Control Additives
Fluid loss, or the premature escape of mix water from the slurry before chemical reaction occurs, can cause many downhole problems, including 1. Differential sticking of casing and decentralization 2. Formation damage by filtrate (if not controlled by mud cake) 3. Loss of pumpability 4. Cement bridging above gas zones and gas cutting from hydrostatic pressure loss 5. Improper or premature dehydration during squeezing

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Filtration Control Additives

Materials to reduce filtrate loss and friction Fluid-loss additives Organic polymers (cellulose)

Amount used per sack (% by weight) 0.5 -1.5% 0.5 1.5%

Carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC) Latex additives, form films

0.3 - 1.0%

1.0 gal/sk

Bentonite cement with dispersant

12-16% gel

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Friction Reducer
Friction reducers or dispersants are commonly used to lower viscosity, yield point and gel strength of the slurry to reduce friction in pipe, and thus allow turbulent flow to occur at reduced pump rates. These additives also permit slurries to be mixed at lower water/cement ratios so that higher densities may be achieved.
Type: Friction reducer Amount used per sack (% by weight) 0.5 to 0.3 lb/sk 0.5 to 1.5 lb/sk 0.5 to 1.5 lb/sk 1 to 16 lb/sk 0.1 to 0.3 lb/sk

Polymer: blend Polymer: long chain Calcium lignosulfonate Sodium Chloride Organic acid

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Lost Circulation Materials
"Lost circulation" or "lost returns" refers to the loss to formation voids of either whole drilling fluid or cement slurry used during the course of drilling or completing a well. Cement, with its larger particle size is less susceptible to loss in permeable formations. Types of lost-circulation additives available for cement are blocky-granular materials (walnut shells, gilsonite, crushed coal, perlite-expanded and perlitesemiexpanded) which form bridges, and laminated materials (cellophane flakes) which form flake-type mats.

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Lost Circulation Materials

Type material Generic name Gilsonite Granular Perlite Walnut shells Coal Lamellated Fibrous Cellophane Nylon

Type particle Graded Expanded Graded Graded Flakes Short fibers

Volumes used, typical range 5-50 lb/sk 1/2-1 cu ft/sk 1-5 lb/sk 1-10 lb/sk 1/8-2 lb/sk 1/8-1/4 lb/sk

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Lost Circulation Materials

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Compressive Strength Stabilizers

Four variables: composition, temperature, pressure, and time affect compressive strength. However, at high temperatures, compositions may cement lose

strength after reaching a high value and never attain the strength reached at lower

curing temperatures

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Well Design Spring 2012

Cement Additives
Summary

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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations
When the concentration of an additive is expressed as a weight percent, the

intended meaning is usually that the weight of the additive put in the cement
mixture is computed by multiplying the weight of cement in the mixture by the weight percent given by 100%. Percent mix = water weight x 100/cement weight The volume of slurry obtained per sack of cement used is called the yield of the cement. 1 sack = 94 lbm.

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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations

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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations

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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations
Example 1: it is desired to mixed a slurry of class A cement containing 3%

bentonite, using the normal mixing water as specified by API. Determine the
weight of bentonite and volume of water to be mixed with one 94-lbm sack of cement. Also compute the percent mix, yield, and density of the slurry.

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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations
The weight of bentonite to be blended with one sack of class A cement:

94(lbm)0.03 = 2.82 lbm / sag


The normal water content for class A cement is 46%. 5.3% water must be added for each percent bentonite. Thus, the percent mix is:

46 + 5.3 x 3 = 61.9%
The weight of water to be added per sack 0.619 x 94 = 58.186 lbm / sag The volume of water to be added for one sack 58.186(lbm) / 8.33 (lbm/gal) = 6.98 gal /sag
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Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Basic Calculations
Yield = total volume of slurry in one sack Yield = Vcement per sack + Vbentonite per sack + Vwater per sack Yield = 94(lbm) x 0.0382(gal/lbm) + 2.82 (lbm) x 0.0453 (gal/lbm) + 6.98 (gal) Yield = 10.69 gal/sack Density of the slurry = total mass of slurry / total volume of slurry Density of the slurry = 94 + 2.82 + 58.186 / 10.69 = 14.48 lbm/gal

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Density Calculations
Example 2: It is desired to increase the density of a class H cement slurry to 17.5

lbm/gal. Compute the amount of hematite that should be blended with each sack
of cement. The water requirements are 4.5 gal/94 lbm class H cement and 0.36 gal/100 lbm hematite.

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Density Calculations
Let x represent the mass of hematite per sack needed to bring the slurry cement density up to 17.5 lbm/gal. The slurry includes: 94-lbm cement, x-lbm hematite, and y-lbm water. The volume of water needed for mixing 1 sack of cement and x-lbm of hematite: Vwater = 4.5 + 0.36(x)/100 = 4.5 + 0.0036x (gal) The weight of water needed for mixing 1 sack of cement and x-lbm of hematite mwater = (4.5 + 0.0036x)8.33 (lbm)

Prepared by: Tan Nguyen

Well Design Spring 2012

Calculation
Density Calculations

total mass total volume


94 x 4.5 0.0036x 8.33 94 0.0382 x 0.0239 4.5 0.0036x

17.5

x = 18.3 lbm hematite per 94 lbm cement.

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